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What does Islam mean?
Islam means “submission”
Briefly describe Mohammed’s life.
-Mohammed was forty when he heard the Word come to him.
-He said that “it is God’s will that people give up other gods”.
What are the two sources of Islamic texts?
-The Koran is God’s direct dictation to Mohammed.
-The Hadith is the report of Mohammed’s actions and the actions of his followers.
-It is the equivalent of the Gospels.
What are the five pillars of Islam, and describe them?
-Faith: The idea that there is only one God, Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.
-Prayer: Praying five times a day toward Mecca.
-Alms Giving: Giving to those who are poor and in need in the Islamic community.
-Ramadan: Fasting for the season of Ramadan, usually starting in October.
-Pilgrimage: All Muslims should visit Mecca once in their lives.
How did Islam spread?
-Islam spread through persuasion and military conquest.
What are some basic similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam in relation to how they interact with the state?
-Both are ‘of this world’
-Islam promotes a vision of the ideal society that is ruled by Allah and the Koran.
-Islam also promotes a lack of separation between church and state.
What are the differences in Islamic communities and what explains these differences?
-More fundamental Muslims believe there should be one Islamic state.
-Others believe in an Islamic society but with a secular state (that is an Islamic guardian).
-Finally, some believe that there should be a complete and total respect for the West.
What are the factors for an Islamic state?
-Political History
-Religious Pluralism
-Globalization Effects
-Economic Factors
What is a simple biography of Mohammed?
-Birth in 470
-Prophethood at age forty in 610
-Migrates to Medina in 622
-Dies in 632
-Caliph rule from 632-662
What are the major sources of the Shari‘a?
-Koran (Divine Revealation)
-Sunna (Prophetic Tradition)
-Qiyas (Analogical Reasoning)
-Ijma' (Juristic Consensus)
What is the Tri-Dimensional Model of Islam?
Theology Ethical Conduct Spiritual Development
-Noursishes our Physical Body
-Religious Thinking -Nourishes our Soul
What are the subdivisions of the Shari‘a?
-International Relations
-Procedural Law
-Penal Code
-Social Relations
-Family Law
-Public Policy
What are the categories of ethical conduct in Islam and what are some examples?
-Required: Pray five times daily
-Recommended: Marriage
-Indifferent: None
-Reprehensible: Smoking
-Forbidden: Intoxicants
What are the major Islamic tendencies and what are their political stances?
-Traditional: Sunni; Moderate C&S separation
-Shiites: Three types: Very liberal, very conservative, and moderate C&S separation.
-Sufi: Islamic mystical teachings
-Salafi: Saudi Arabia
-Islamists: Very conservative C&S, no separation
-Liberal/Progressive Muslims
What is the key difference during the Sunni, Shiite split and who is the majority?
-Who should be the successor to Mohammed?
-Sunni: elected leader, majority
-Shiite: lineage from Mohammed, minorities
What are some of the blocks of Islam?
-Arabian/Middle Eastern, North Africa, Persia, China, Southeastern Asia, European
What are some Islamic-state typologies?
-Theocracy, state of war, state of coexistence, secular state, religiously-plural state.
What are the models for a religious state typology?
-Theocratic Model: Very traditional
-Repressionist Model: Sadaam Hussein
-Separationist Model: Western
-Cooperative Model: South Africa
What did Graham Fuller say about society and politics?
-“If society and politics are unhappy and violent, then religious expression is likely to be similar”
What is the concept of positive peace?
-It is peace with justice, “if you want peace, work for justice”
What does the Kairos Document say?
-State Theology: Muslims want to establish states
-Church Theology: Strict separation of C&S
-Prophetic Theology: Religion does not embrace ‘party politics’, but does talk about issues of justice
What is the role of religious leaders in Desmond Tutu’s opinion?
-“All religious leaders have the abilities to solve problems, but church leadership gets in the way”
What is Islamism?
-It is an ideology that promotes a Koranic-based system of government or regime that makes the Sharia or Islamic religious law the law of the land
What are good research questions of Islam?
-Are all poor and unequal countries the sites of growing Islamism?
-Are all countries with greater access to global/Western media the sites of growing Islamism?
-Are all countries with a history of secular authoritarian regimes the sites of growing Islamism?
What are the causes of Islamism?
-Poverty, inequality, globalization, and recent history of authoritarian regimes are insufficient.
-A history of secular authoritarian regimes is necessary but not sufficient!
What is the “Free Elections Trap and what is the major questions that we need to answer?”
-In many countries it seems likely that free and fair elections will lead to the election of Islamist governments.
-Will Islamist governments mean the end of democracy?
-Do societies need to become less Islamic to become more democratic?
-Does a person need to become less Muslim to become a good democrat?
What are the theories in relation to religious systems and democracy?
-Huntington: Civilizational Perspective
-Stepan: Institutional Perspective
What is the Huntington perspective?
-Separation of C&S is necessary for democracy
-Western Christianity recognizes this separation in a way that Islam, Confucianism, and Orthodox Christianity do not.
What is the relationship between Islam, Confucianism, and Orthodox Christianity in relation to God?
-In Islam God is Caesar
-In Confucianism Caesar is God
-In Orthodox Christianity, Caesar is God’s junior partner.
What is Stepan’s theory?
-He believes in twin tolerations:
-He thinks that elected officials must be free from religious veto when making policies.
-Religious communities must be free to publicly advance values in a society.
What evidence does Stepan cite?
-There has been/is no strict separation between C&S in established European democracies.
-There have/are religiously based parties in established European countries
-However, established European democracies have the “twin tolerations”
What are predominantly Islam/Christian relationships with freedom, and what question does that raise?
-Predominantly Islamic countries are not free.
-Predominantly Christian countries are free.
-Is there something about Islam that impedes democracy?
What are some important points when studying religious and political culture?
-Regime type is a poor indicator of political culture (simply because a place is not free does not mean that the people do not want freedom).
-A non-denominational political culture may or may not be the result of a religious system or heritage (just because a country is Islamic, does that mean that Islam is impeding them?).
-If a religious system/heritage is an obstacle to a democratic political culture now, it does not necessarily mean it always has been or will be.
-At the same point and time, the same religious system/heritage may promote a democratic political culture in one country or region within a country and impede it in another.
-A religious system/heritage may encourage democracy but may also discourage liberal values.
What does Stepan argue about the world’s oldest religious systems?
-He argues that they are ‘multivocal’.
-They contain teachings and traditions that can and have been used to support democracy and tolerance of others, and teachings, tendencies, and traditions that can and have been used to impede democracy and promote intolerance.
What is important about these religious systems?
-It is clear that whether a religious system blesses or condemns a democracy and freedom of expression and association depends on: TIME and PLACE!
Is there a clash between the West and rest?
-Yes, it’s about political and social values at its core. It is a clash of civilizations/cultures/religious traditions [Huntington].
-Yes, it’s about social values rather than political values and at its core it’s a clash between the poor, unequal, and insecure societies and the rich, secure, and equal societies.
What are Norris and Inglehardt’s take on why most Muslim, Orthodox Christian, and Confucian countries are less democratic?
-They think that these countries are not less democratic because of their religions.
-They think that the people in these countries are just as supportive of democracy as are Christian countries.
-However, more people in predominantly Muslim countries do believe that religious leaders should be involved in politics.
-Most Muslim, Orthodox Christian, and Confucian countries are less liberal but not because of their religious beliefs, but because of poverty, inequality, and insecurity.
What is the Norris/Inglehardt idea on the West and the rest?
-They think that the Christian West was like the rest of the world before it was developed.
-It would be more religious and less liberal if it were poorer and less secure.
What do Norris and Inglehardt conclude?
-Nearly all the older people in the West are as illiberal as the rest of the world.
-The younger people are only slightly more liberal than the rest of the world.
-However, they find younger people in the West are significantly more liberal than older people anywhere and also more than younger people in the rest of the world.
In Stepan’s opinion, does reiligion always and everywhere make people less liberal/tolerant? Are people who are more religious less liberal or tolerant?
-Stepan argues that the world’s largest and oldest religious system, specifically Christianity and Islam are ‘multivocal’.
How do we explain how religion is appropriated?
-Poverty Inequality
-Religious Market Structure
What is the relationship between Christianity and violence?
-A history of religiously motivated martyrdom
-Includes religiously motivated or justified killing.
Describe religiously motivated violence throughout history.
-One time officially sanctioned
-Crusades, killing of Muslims
-Inquisition, the torturing and killing of heretics
-Witch trials, the burning of witches
-More recently violence has been because of individual action
-Mike Bray
-Eric Rudolph
-Timothy McVeigh
Is there reason to believe that individual action is more common than group acts of violence or officially sanctioned violence?
-There is reason o believe individual action is more common, but it depends on how you define “acting as an individual”.
Who was Mike Bray, what did he do?
-Bombed abortion clinics
-Member of “Army of God”
-Wanted the result of his terrorism to start a new political group with a biblical basis.
-He was fed up with the Lutheran Church
-Said it was too separated from the Bible
-Starts a reformed Lutheran Church
What were Bray’s motivation and his beliefs?
-His motivation was that he was concerned that the US government was filled with ‘pagans’ who undermined individual’s rights and moral values
-He said the situation in the US was similar to Nazi Germany
-He wanted a moral order in America, with Biblical basis
-He felt that killing abortion doctors is defensive and preventative
Who were some inspirational figures to Bray and what were their actual beliefs?
-Bonhoffer and Niebuhr
-“Under certain conditions, Christians can use violence as a just reason to break laws for a higher purpose”
-Both men believed in a separation of C&S
What is Dominion Theology?
-The idea that Christianity must reassert the dominion of God over all things, including secular politics and society.
-Gerry Falwell and Pat Robertson have similar beliefs.
What is Reconstruction Theology and what are its strands?
-It is the emphasis to reassert or reconstruct a Christian society by turning to the Bible as a basis for the nation’s law.
-Post millennial strand: get the world ready for Christ
-Bray’s ideology
-Pre millennial strand: be ready for Christ
-Both have a very apocalyptical world view
Who was Eric Rudolph and Timothy McVeigh and what was their inspiration and beliefs?
-Olympic park bombing
-Chose target because the torch refused to pass through an anti-gay county
-Bombed lesbian bars and abortion clinics
-Oklahoma City, bombed a federal building
-Turner Diaries
-Known as McVeigh’s Bible
-Shows the world as freedom fighters vs. a doctoral government
-200,000 copies sold (most at gun shows)
-Grounded in misuse of Christian identity ideas
-Gives support for organizing militias
-Christian Identity Movement
-Racial supremacy
-Biblical law
-Yearn for a revolution to undo religion and the state
-Anti-gun control
-A belief that the UN and the Democratic Party are accomplices in a Jewish-Freemason plot to control the world
What is the relationship between Judaism and Violence?
-A history of religiously motivated dying and martyrdom
-A history that includes religiously motivated or justified killing
What are the kinds of relationships between Jews and Politics?
-Secular vs. Religious Jews
-Zionists vs. Non-Zionists
-Secular Zionists vs. Religious Zionists
-The debate between whether the state should be religiously secular or fundamentally religious.
What is Religious Zionism?
-A Secular Jewish state is the forerunner of biblical Israel
-It contains a “hidden spark” of the sacred
-Occupying land is not only important politically, but is also important religiously
Who are some Jewish terrorists?
-Yoel Lerner
-Yigal Amir
-Dr. Baruch Goldstien
Who was Yoel Lerner?
-He was relived after the assassination of Rabin
-Visited Rabin’s assassin
-Attempted to bomb the Dome of the Rock
What was Lerner’s belief on Rabin and Rabin’s assassin?
-Considered the assassin a hero, patriot, and martyr
-Believed that Rabin’s government was illegitimate because it was formed by liberal Jews and Arabs who negotiated with the PLO
-Believed that Rabin’s policies were anti-Jewish
-Believed that Rabin was giving away state land
Who is Rabin’s assassin?
-Yigal Amir
What is a Theological Justification for killing according to Amir?
-Amir thought that in order to be justified by a decree that was issued by some rabbi’s
-Stated that a Jew is morally obligated to kill someone who represents a moral danger to Jews
Who is Baruch Goldstien?
-Shot forty or so Muslims at the “Tomb of the Patriarchs”
-Seems to have snapped one day
-Pummeled to death by the crowd
What were his beliefs?
-God requires the Jews to occupy the land, specifically the ancient towns on the West Bank
-Zionists cannot stand the fact that the West Bank is occupied by Muslims
-The Palestinian government on the West Bank is a danger to Israel as a nation and Judaism as a religion
-“The secular state is the enemy”
What is Messianic Zionism?
-The belief that the Messiah will only come to earth after the temple is rebuilt and is made ready for him
What is Catastrophic Zionism?
-The belief that the Messiah will come in a great conflict in which Jews triumph and praise God through their success
What does Jewish humiliation do?
-Prevents the world’s progress to salvation
What are the similarities between recent episodes of Christian and Jewish motivated or justified violence?
-Apocalyptic world view
-Both promote a biblical/Jewish based state
-Extremists have short term effects
-Very ‘this’ worldly focused
-Very closed-minded and think their interpretation of scripture is right
-1) They see the world at war
-2) Apocolyptic world view of history
-3) Secular state is the enemy
-4) Supportive [sub]culture of violence
-Ideas and social gatherings that promote a certain view of the world
-A ‘cheering section’

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