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CHEM TEST 11/3 ch. 5, 13, 28


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what are the chemical properties of an atom related to?
the number of its valence electrons
how can you tell if an atom is in an excited state
electrons skip over energy levels
what is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy an orbital?
usually the term "kernel" includes all parts of the atom except
valence electrons
what subatomic particles are found in the nucleus
protons and neutrons
what is the mass of a proton
what is the mass of a neutron
what is the mass of an electron
0 AMU (1/1836 the mass of a proton)
definition of AMU
1/12 the mass of isotope carbon-12 (C-12)
mass of an alpha particle
charge of an alpha particle
penetrating power of an alpha particle
mass of a beta particle
1/1836 AMU
charge of beta particle
penetrating power of beta particle
mass of gamma particle
no mass
charge of gamma particle
no charge
penetrating power of gamma particle
what part of the atom undergoes change during radioactive decay
the nucleus
how does a nucleus lose energy during radioactive decay
emits radiation
the process by which materials give off rays when they have an unstable nucleus
radioactive decay
the pprocess by which an unstable nucelus loses energy by emitting radiation
how wavelength affects energy
the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy
what happens when electrons falll back down to their ground state from their excited state
they give off energy
what happens when electrons go from ground state to ecited state
absorb energy
when two elements react exothermically to form a compound should the compoud be stable or not?
why would two elements, when forming a compound, be stable?
bc the release of energy from a reaction indicates that the compound is formed at a low energy level and thus is relatively stable
what kind of light is given off when electrons go down to the lowest energy level from their excited state and what is it called?
UV-Lyman series
what kind of light is given off when electrons go down to the 2nd lowest energy level from their excited state and what is it called
visible light--Balmer series
what kind of light is given off when electrons go down to the 3rd lowest energy level from their excited state and what is it called
infrared--Paschen series
what do the periods (1-7) tell about an atom of an element
telll the # of valence electrons
whhich elements have 3d and 4s overlaps
transition elements
to what sublevel do groups 1 and 2 on the periodic table fill?
to what sublevel do groups 13-18 (6 elements across) fill?
to what sublevel do groups 3-12 (10 elements across) fill?
where you can expect to find an electron 90% of the time
principle energy levels
s, p, d, f
how many orbitals do each sublevel contain?
s- 1 orbital
p- 3 orbitals
d- 5 orbitals
f- 7 orbitals
what is an s sublevel shaped like
a circle
what is a p sublevel shaped like
a figure 8
how many electrons can the s sublevel hold
how many electrons can the p sublevel hold
how many electrons can the d sublevel hold
how many electrons can the f sublevel hold
where is the overlap in the sublevels
4s comes before 3d
what can the shapesof an orbital look like
a circle or a square
hunds rule
orbitals get filled partly before they can double up (P orbitals x, y, z)
in which energy level is there the most potential energy and the least stability
what is the nucleus of an atom like?
dense and positively charged
stability and activity of electrons in relation to the nucleus
the closer to the nuclear electrons are, the more stable they are and the less active they are
formula for how many electrons an energy level can hold
2nsqaured (n=energy level number)
as electrons move up in levels what happens to energy
energy is absorbed
when electrons move down in levels what happens to energy
energy is emitted
why do electrons emit light in different wavelengths as they move back down to lower energy levels
because they have different electron configurations
bright line spectrum
quantitative analysis of light released as electrons return to ground sate
what does the lewis dot configuration show
the number of valence electrons
what element is used for archaeological discoveries?
what reaction releases the greatest amount of energy
what are the nucleus' like of radioactive elements
what does a particle accelerator have no effect on?
the velocy of a neutron
why doesnt a particle accelerator have an effect on a neutron?
bc it can only have an effect on charge particles
what is the primary result of a fission reaction
conversation of mass to energy
the stability of an isotope is based on what ratio
neutrons and protons
what fissionable isotope is produced from uranium-238 in a breeder reactor?
how do you know what elements naturally decay
elements with # 83 or above naturally decay
what elements are naturally radioactive
anything 83 or above
Po stands for
in nuclear reactions, what is mass converted to
what does a fusion reaction look like
two things combined to make one thing
what affects the half-life of an element
why can radiated food be stored for a long time
bc radiation kills bacteria
when is a radioisotope called a tracer
when it is used to determine the way in which a chemical reaction occurs
what are the elements in group 1 called
alkaline metals (basic metals)
what are the elements in group 2 called
alkaline earth metals
which elements are metalloidss
right side of the staircase plus the two in the middle on the left side
which elements are non metals
all elements to the right of the metalloids
which elements are noble gases
group 8 (18)
which groups are transition elementd
groups 3-12
which groups are metals
all except non metals
what did dalton say about the atom
it was solid and indestructable
what was dalton wrong about
the atom is not indestructable
what did thompson realize
that electrons had a negative charge--plum pudding model
what did rutherford realize
that atoms have positively charged central nucelus but are mostly empty space
what experiment did rrutherford do?
gold foil
how do isotopes get unstable
they have too many neutrons
packet of energy required to boost an electron to a higher energy (quantum) level
niels bohr said..
electrons were found in definite orbits around the nucleus
what niels bohr right?
noelectrons are in an elecctron cloud
what did niels bohr say that WAS right
about the quantum
half life
the amount of time for half of a substance to decay
when your going forward in time with halflife what dou u do
divide by 2
when your going backward in time with halflife what do u do
multiply by 2
what do all radiactive things end up as?
stable, nonradioactive lead (Pb)
what is U-238
spent fuel
what does the top number of an isotope tell you
the number of neutrons
what does the bottom number of an isotope tell you
atomic number of the element
what is isotope h-1 called
what is isotope h-2 called
what is isotope h-3 called
what is less stable, something apart (H2 and O2) or something together (H2O)
something apart
Heisenbergs uncertaity prinicipal
it is impossible to know both the speed and location of an electron at any time
what are nuclides
nuclear fission
when the nucleus splits into smaller fragments by slow moving nuetrons hitting it
nuclear fusion
when the nuclei combine to produce a greater mass
what fusion looks like
example of fusion
2H + 2H + 4 HE + energy
1 1 2
binding energy
the amount of energy released when a nucleus is formed from its component particles
example of fissionable material
fuel (uranium)
critical mass
the amount of fuel to enable the chain reaction to continue-
what happens throughout a chain reaction
energy is released
examples of nuclear shit
china syndrome, 3 mile island, chemobyl, indian point, shoreham
what do valence electrons determine
how an atom reacts
what does the group number of an element tell u
the # of valence electrons
energy that is released or absorbed when electrons move up and down the energy levels
5 of daltons basic ideas
1. all matter is made up of small particlses called atoms
2. all atoms of an element are alike in weight, and different from the weight of atoms of other elements
3. atoms cant be subdivided, created, or detroyed (wrong)
4. atoms combine to form compuds
5. in chemical reactions, atom
who measured the charge on an electron using an apparatus
robert milikan
protons and neutrons--inside the nucleus
henry moselely
first determined the atomic numbers of the elements through the use of x yrays
average atomic mass
weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element
what element has the most isotopes
how to calculate the average atomic mass
multiply the atmoic masss of each isotope by its relative abundance (in decimal form) and then add the results
metals and electrons
tend to lend electrons
nonmetals and electrons
tend to borrow electrons
noble gases and electrons
tend to borrow nor lend electrons and have a complete outer energy level
wolfgang pauli
said the electrons spin in the orbital
proposed periodic table
conversation of an element to a new element because of a change in protons
4 parts of a nuclear reactor
1. fissionable material
2. moderator
3. control rods
4. concrete encasement
fissionable material
sustains thechain reaction
slows down fission neutrons
control rods
cadmium or boron
absorv excess neutrons and control rate of reaction
concrete encasement
provides shielding from radiation
in a hydrogen bomb, what is hydrogen converted into?
summary of daltons model (regnets)--5
1. each element is composed of indivisible particles called atoms
2. atoms of one element are the same, all different for different elements
3. atoms are not created, destroyed, or changd
4. compounds form from atoms
5. compounds always have the same relative number of atoms
how did jj thomson find out the electrons charge
cathode ray tube
who discovered the elementary charge of an atom?
rovert millikan
plum pudding model
atom was a positively charged jelly like mass with negative electrons scatered through it
wat are spectural lines a result of
electrons falling from higher energy levels to lower ones
what is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the f sublevel
what quantum number governs the orientation of an orbital in space?
what quantum number governs the spin state of an electron
what is osotope iodine 131 used for
uncoverng tyroid disorders and, with cobalt-60, treating certain cancers
what iswhy are some isiopes espcially good for medical treatment
they have short haklf lives which is necessay to ensure rapid decay and elimination of te radioisotope from the body
particle accelerator
a devicce that uses electric and magnetic fields to provide a charged bombarding nuclear particle with sufficient energy to induce a desired nuclear reaction
examples of particle accelerators
Van de Graaff accelerator, linear accelerator, the cyclotron, the sunchrotron, and the LEP collider
first artificial transmutation by rutherford using alpha particles
14N + 4He--->17O + 1H
7 2 8 1
2 more aritificail tramsmutations
9BE + 4 He ---? 1n + 12C
4 2 1 6

27Al + 4He ---> 1n + 30P
13 2 1 15
what is the most common isotope of uranium
what goes with breed reactors
an isotope of which element may be used as a fuel in a fission reaction?
the atoms of some elements can be made radioactive by
bombarding them with high-energy particles
what is a gaseous radioactive waste produced during some fission reactions
in a fusion reaction, what is a major problem in cuasing the nuclei to fuse into asingle nucleus?
repulsions of the nuclei

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