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AP Psychology Chapter 4

These terms are matched to Myers 8th edition of Psychology chapter 4.

Terms

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developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies human development in phsical, cognitive, and social change perspectives.
preoperational stage
in Piaget's theory lasts from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age. During this stage, language development is rapid, but the child is unable to understand the mental operations of concrete logic.
conservation
the principle that properties such as number, volume, and mass remain constant despite changes in the forms of objects; it is acquired during the concrete operational stage.
cross-sectional study
in this study people of different ages are compared with one another.
menarche
the first menstrual period.
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
longitudinal study
in this study the same people are tested and retested over a period of years.
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
puberty
the early adolescent period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproduction.
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget's theory of cognitive stages, this stage lasts from birth to about age 2.During this stage, infants gain knowledge of the world through their senses and their motor activities.
schemas
are mental concepts that organize and interpret information. They are found in Piaget's theory of cognitive development
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
concrete operational stage
the stage lasting from about ages 6 or 7 to 11, children can think logically about concrete events and objects.
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
accommodation
refers to changing an existing schema to incorporate new information that cannot be assimilated.In Piaget's theory.
crystalized intelligence
one's accumulated acknowledge and verbal skills; tends fo increase with age
attachment
an emotional tie with another person, shown in young children by their seeking closeness to a caregiver and showing distress on separation.
self-concept
a person's sense of identity and personal worth.
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments early in life, usually during a limited critical period.
secondary sex characteristics
the nonreproductive sexual characteristics, for example,female breasts, male voice quality, and body hair.
identity
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
crystallized intelligence
refers to those aspects of intellectual ability, such as vocabulary and general knowledged that reflect accumulated learning. Crystallized intelligence tends to increase with age.
alzheimer's disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, phisical funtioning.
embryo
the developing prenatal organism from about 2 weeks through 2 months after conception.
adolescence
this refers to the life stage from puberty to independent adulthood, denoted physically by a growth spurt and maturation of primary and secondary sex characteristics, cognitively by the onset of formal operational thought, and socially by the formation of identity.
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants begin to display at about 8 months of age.
assimilation
refers to interpreting a new experience in terms of an existing schema.In Piaget's theory.
social clock
the cultural preferred timing of social event such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that enable reproduction.
intimacy
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory normally begins about age 12. During this stage people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple.
object permanance
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
critical period
the limited time shortly after birth during which an organism must be exposed to certain experiences or influences if it is to develop properly.
fetal alcohol syndrome
a syndrome that refers to the physical and cognitive abnormalities that heavy drinking by a pregnant woman may cause in the developing child.
egocentrism
in Piaget's theory refers to the difficulty that preoperational children have in considing another's viewpoint. "Ego" means "self" erring and "centrism" indicates "in the center"; the preoperational child is "self-centered."
fluid intelligence
refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly. Fluid intelligence tends to decline with age.
basic trust
according to Erikson is a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy - a concept that infants form if their needs are met by responsive caregiving.
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repearted exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

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