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Sociology Final


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illegitimate power is called this
political action committee (PAC)
an organization formed by one or more special interest groups to solicit and spend funds for the purpose of influencing legislation
functional perspective of government
the people give the government a monopoly on violence so that it can protect them, but the governments sometimes use it to exploit them
winner take all
the political election system in america, opposite of proportional representation
social placement
education funnels people into societys positions
corporate welfare
the financial incentives to either get a corporation to move or stay somewhere
a new religion with few followers whose teachings and practices put it at odds with the dominant culture and religion
common elements of every day
power relations wherever they exist, micro and macro
credential society
the use of diplomas and degree to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree me be irrelevant to the actual work
caused by issuing more currency than the GDP
convergence theory
there is not a sequence to the development of nations, they can skip stages to get to industrialization
rural, close knit community
1. private ownership of the means of production 2. market competition 3. pursuit of profit
the government has total control of the people
power elite
the top people in US corporations, military, and government who make the nations major decisions
socialist ideology
profit is immoral, it is the excess value that has been withheld from the workers
the transfer of traditional societies into industrial society
fiat money
currency issued by the government that has nothing to back it up
system of reckoning descent that counts only the father's side
social promotion
pasing students on to the next level even though they have not thoroughly mastered basic materials
serial fatherhood
monogamous relationships one after the other
family of orientation
the family you grow up in
representative democracy
representatives are chosen to express opinions and make decisions
social class in religion
status consistency in religion, americans who change their social class also have a tendency to change their religion
a religious group so integrated into th edominant culter that it is difficult to tell where the one begins and the other leaves off
deposit receipt
a certain amount of goods are held in storage to give this value
the power is held by few
state religion
government sponsered religion
centrist parties
the political party that represents the center of public opinion
rule of an industry by a few large corporations
decreasing in america, peaks in childhood, bottoms out in parenthood
secularization of religion
the replacement o fa religions spiritual concerns with worldly concerns can lead to the splintering of a religious group
democratic socialism
a hybrid economic system which capitalism is mixed with state ownership
teachings or ideas that provide a unified picture of the world
subsistence economy
human groups live off the land and have little or no surplus
reasons for family
1 economic production 2 socialization of children 3 care of sick and aged 4 recreation 5 sexual control 6 reproduction
prodestant ethic
the desire to accumulate capital as a duty not to spend it but as an end in itself, and to constantly reinvest it
special interest group
a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political action
charismatic authority
an individual who attracts followers based on outstanding traits, hitler, joan of arc
the process bu with education opens and closes doors of opportunity; another term for the social placement function of education
belonging to the world and its affairs
an extrodinary gift from god, magnetic personality
and individual holds all the power
the belief that true religion is threatedned bu modernism and its calues and that faith as it was originally practiced should be restored
correspondence principle
the sociological principle that schools correspond to the social structure of their society
capitalist ideology
market forces should determine products and prices, profit is good for humanity
functional equivalent
in this context a substitute that serves the same functions like AA for religion
empty nest
a married couples position after all the children leave, 42% of all us 24 - 29 yr olds are living with their parents
environmental injustice
pollution of the environment affecting minorities and the poor the most
traditional authority
based on customs, hallmark of tribal politics
proportional representation
seats in legislature are divided according to the proportion of votes that each party recieves
the sort of students into different educational programs on the basis of real or precieved abilities
routinization of charisma
leadership transfer from charismatic leader to either traditional or rational legal authority
global division of labor
international depends for goods, each region doing their part
family of procreation
the family you create
corporate capitalism
the domination of the economic system bu giant corporations
system of descent
how kinship is traced over the generations
authority more or less equally divided between people or groups in this instance between husband and wife
quiet revolution
the changes that happen when tons of women enter the work force
a religious group larger than a cult that still feels substantial hostility from and toward society
legitimate power is called this
system of society in which females dominate
stagnant paychecks
paychecks are increasing, but their buying power is not
non-centrist parites
discouraged by winner take all system, political parties that represent less popular ideas
a brand name within a major religion, for example, methodist or baptist
interlocking directorates
the same people serving on the same board of directors for several companies
ten times as common as it was 30 yrs ago, unmarried couples living together
hidden cirriculum
the unwritten goals of schools, such as teaching obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms
universal citizenship
the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country
conditions of war
1. antagonistic situation in which two or more states confront incompatible objectives 2. cultural tradition of war 3. fuel that heats the antagonistic situation to a point where politicians actually wage war Revengy power prestige unity position ethnicity beliefs
least industrialized education
even if mandatory education laws exist, they are not enforced
blended family
a family whose members were once part of other families
stored value
currency has good stored to back up its value
mandatory education laws
laws that require all children to attend school until a specified ago or until they complete a minimum grade in school
required in war, degradation of people to objects
moral community of believers, organized, formal sevices
extended family
dysfunction and feelings of isolation can be felt in nuclear families because they aren't an
functional illiterate
a high school graduate who has difficulty with basic reading and math
a system of reckoning descent that counts both the mothers and father's side
and emphasis on male strength, sexual vigor, and dominance, prevalent in latino families
people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients, a lot of times they are people who had formerly had governmental positions
underground economy
exchange of goods and services not reported to the government, drugs largest source
direct democracy
everyone can meet to make decision
grade inflation
higher grades given for the same work; a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning
conspicuous consumption
a change from the prodestant ethic to an eagerness to show off wealth by the consumption of goods
dialectical process
each arrangement, or thesis, contains contradicitons, or antitheses, which must be resolved; the new arrangement, or synthesis, contains its own contradictions, and so on. -----> basically this means each ruling groups sows its own seeds of destruction
gross domestic product (GDP)
the amount of goods and services produced by a nation, forms a practical limit on the amount of paper money issued by a government
system of reckoning descent that counts only the mothers side
conflict perspective religion
religion teaches taht the existing social arrangements of a society represent what god desires, opiate of the masses, help workers be okay with their position
rational legal authority
authority based on law or written rules and regulations, also called bureaucratic authority
convergence theory
capitalism and socialism are inevitably merging
messing up the people who legally harm the environment
a condition of lawlessness and disorder caused by the absence of a government
the tendency of people with similar characteristics to marry eachother
welfare or state capitalism
individuals own the means of production but the government regulates the economy for the welfare of the population
the separation of power among many government groups to prevent one from having too much power
romantic love
sexual attraction and idealization
the belief that objects have spirits
coalition government
a government in which a country's largest party aligns itself with one or more smaller parties
market forces
the law of supply and demand
violence and threat of violence to meet political demands
civil religion
religion that is such a established feature of society that the country's institutions and history are part of it
laissez faire capitalism
government doesn't interfere with market, not what the US does
system of society in which males dominate
market restraints
laws and regulations that limit the capacity to manufacture and sell products
1. public ownership of means of production 2. central planning 3. the distribution of goods without profit motive

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