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Psych Midterm 1


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Wilhelm Wundt
structuralist. Break down mind into basic elements
William James
functionalist. Why do we have a mind & consciousness? What do they do for us?
Sigmund Freud
psychoanalyst. Unconscious forces guided by childhood
B. F. Skinner
behaviorist. Stimuli and response, observable behavior
The perspectives
Cognitive, biological, sociocultural, humanistic, behavioral
Cognitive perspective
how thought occurs, organization of the mind
biological perspective
mechanisms that influence behavior
sociocultural perspective
influence of people, cultures, and societies on behavior
humanistic perspective
promoting happiness and self-realization
behavioral perspective
looks at observable behavior (e.g. Skinner)
experimenter expectancy effect
the experimenter can influence the results based on their expectations
demand characteristics
participants act how they think they're supposed to act
internal validity
confidant results, not many factors to throw them off
external validity
ability to widely generalize the results to other situations
Franz Gall. Skull bumps indicate character traits
left brain
verbal, mathmatical, logical abilities
right brain
spatial ability
corpus collosum
connects the left & right hemispheres
basic life-support functions. Cerebellum, medulla & pons, reticular formation
motor and sensory pathways
home of the hemispheres, most advanced.
balance, muscle coordination. in hindbrain
medulla & pons
brainstem. pathway for sensory & motor nerves. in hindbrain
reticular formation
consciousness, sleep, & attention. Regulates which messages go through. Midbrain
frontal lobe
biggest. reasoning, speech, complex behaviors. motor cortex
parietal lobe
upper back. sensory, touch & feeling. somatic sensory cortex
occipital lobe
back of head. vision
temporal lobe
above the ears. auditory
limbic system
memory, emotion, and goal-directed behavior. Contains hippocampus and amygdala
forming & retrieving memories
organizes motivational & emotional response patterns, especially if related to aggression & fear
damage in one hemisphere means an inability to perceive one side of the world
Phineas Gage
Frontal lobe damage. Sparked investigation of where the "self" is housed
recognition impairment
face recognition impairment
excites neurons & increases firing by mimicking a neurotransmitter or blocking reuptake
Inhibits neurons & decreases firing by blocking neurotransmitter release or binding to receptor sites
Absolute threshold
minimum amount of stimulation needed to detect it 50% of the time. Varies with context.
Difference threshold
minimum detectable difference between two stimuli 50% of the time
below the 50% threshold
Weber's law
difference threshold is proportionate to stimulus intensity
Sensory transduction
Taking energy to the brain via neural messages
Color constancy
perceive familiar objects as all one color even if half in shadows and half in sun
McGurk effect
combining syllables when seen and heard differently (e.g. Ga + Ba = Da)
Gestalt principles
"form" or "whole". Figure-ground and grouping.
Monocular depth cues
relative size, objects in front, relative clarity, linera perspective, elevation of horizon
Binocular depth cues
retinal disparity (difference btwn what the eyes see), convergence (eyes toward each other means closer)
personal perception
perception affected by expectations, attention, biases, and context
perceptual sets
mental predisposition based on experience (e.g. scrambled word lists)
can be primed to feel a way (e.g. sexism)
John B. Watson
Founder of the behaviorist school. 12 children quote.

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