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Psych Ch 10


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an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting; generally stable over time
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or emabrassing
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories; according to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality; operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital_ during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father; female version: electra complex
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts are unresolved
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness; is not infallible (Freudian slips)
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites; thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings (gay-bashing/homophobia)
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others (own sense of mistrust of others -> "he doesn't trust me")
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history; seperate from personal unconscious; universally inherited ("the cloud" of unconscious); includes archetypes of human ideas (the hero, the quest, the great mother)
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
thematic application test (TAT)
a projective tests in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
terror management theory
a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death; anxiety due to vulnerability or thoughts of death triggers defensive strategies, like preserving self-esteem, which may be tied to attachment bonds or religion; a less negative anxiety-management idea than Freud's
psychosexual stage; 0-18 months; pleasure centers on the mouth (sucking, biting, chewing)
psychosexual stage; 18-36 months; pleasure focuses on bowel/bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
psychosexual stage; 3-6 yrs; pleasure zone in the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
psychosexual stage; 6-puberty; dormant sexual feelings; identify with same-sex parent
psychosexual stage; puberty on; maturation of sexual interests
erogenous zones
pleasure centers (Freud, psychosexual stages)
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential; personal potential, very individualistic (doesn't apply to collectivist societies)
according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs; meaning, purpose communion beyond the self; purpose beyond self, to help others meet their needs
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person; no constraints on acceptance
humanistic psychology
In contrast to Freud's study of the bases ways of "sick" people, this branch focused on the ways "healthy" people strive for self-determination and self-realization; study people through their own self-reported experiences and feelings; explores positive human growth and potential through self-report data
third-force perspective
offered by Maslow and Carl Rogers; emphasized human potential; distinct from 1) behaviorist and 2) psychoanalytic approaches
developed unconditional positive regard; said all are capable of growth if they are in a growth-promoting environment growth promoting climate needs 3 conditions: genuineness (open, honest, transparent), acceptance(offering grace for vulnerability), empathy (listening and reflecting feelings; it's important to be an active listener!)
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"; personal feelings from self-reflection, evaluations based on ideal self (self-report tests v. interviews? self-reporting (questionnaires) is somewhat limiting while interviews are costly and take a lot of time) (ideal v. actual self? impact of self-esteem or evaluation of self-worth)
Alfred Adler
Neo-Freudian who coined the inferiority complex
inferiority complex
Adler; shapes childhood development; feelings of inferiority and helplessness lead to drive for power)
Neo-Freudian who coined sense of helplessness and challenged penis envy
sense of helplessness
Horney; helplessness -> anxiety -> love and security; establishment of attachment
Neo-Freudian who proposed collective unconscious; also coined electra complex
psychodynamic theory
put together by Neo-Freudians; recognize the unconscious, childhood influence on development, inner conflicts but NOT superego/ego/id or psyschosexual stages
peak experiences
in the Humanistic perspective, intensely exciting, uplifting, euphoric moments, often linked to interconnectedness or things which transcend ourselves (like spirituality); "transient moments of self-actualization"
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports; describes rather than explains
He came to define personality in terms of identifiable behavior patterns; was less concerned with explaining individual traits than describing them
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
a personality test that attempted to sort people according to Carl Jung's personality types (ex. thinking type vs. feeling type); absence of proven scientific worth, used more as a counseling/coaching tool than a research instrument; indicates personality traits
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of correlated test items that tap basic components of intelligence (such as spatial ability or verbal skill); statistically correlated clusters of behavior reflect basic factors or traits (ex. extraversion)
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
personality test measuring variations of two or three dimensions (extroversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability); factor analysis
personality inventory
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits; measures a mulltitude of traits
Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests; originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered it's most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes; assesses degree of disorders
empirically derived test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between the groups; is objective (standardized) and works on a lie scale to make sure you aren't just answering in socially acceptable ways, is also checked by reverse scoring (opposite worded Qs that receive the same rating indicate inattention to answers)
the big five
personality factors (five dimensions) -conscientiousness ( organized/disorganized, careful/careless, disciplined/impulsive) -agreeableness (soft-hearted/ruthless, trusting/suspicious, helpful/uncooperative) -neuroticism or emotional stability v. instability (calm/anxious, secure/insecure, self-satisfied/self-pitying) -openness (imaginative/practical, preference for variety/preference for routine, independent/conforming) -extroversion (sociable/retiring, fun-loving/sober, affectionate/reserved)
Rotter's I-E Scale
scale that measures whether people believe in an external locus of control or an internal locus of control
social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interactions between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context (environment/situation); "cognitive-behavioral approach"; behavior > environmental factors > personal factors (cognitive, affective, and biological events); situations shapes our behavior, along with personal factors
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment; 1. different people choose different environments. 2. our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events. 3. our personalities help create situations to which we react; 'exchange, consequences inevitably from actions'; personalities are shaped by the interactions of personal factors, behaviors, and situations (like the biopsychosocial approach)
personal control
the extend to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless; can be studied observationally or experimentally; regulating our own actions/impulses/decisions; improves with practice; carries over to other tasks; also known as self-control
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate; idea that self is not in control
internal locus of control
the perception that you control you own fate Langer/Rodin research: giving some nursing home patients the ability to rearrange and decorate their rooms v. group with no control ->those with control were healthier, happier, lived longer
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning (individuals and cultures); aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive; positive emotions and character, humanistic, human potential, productivity and healthy
in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions; kinda like Freud's regulating 'ego'
possible selves
include your visions of the self you dream of becoming, as well as the self you fear becoming; these motivate us by laying out specific goals and calling forth the energy to work toward them; ideal, feared, with friends, with family, etc.
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us); like adolescent egocentrism
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self-serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably; people accept more responsibility for good deeds than for fad, successes than failures; most people see themselves as better than average (statistically impossible)
defensive self-esteem
is fragile; focuses on sustaining itself, which makes failures and criticism feel threatening; such egotism exposes one to perceived threats, which feed anger and disorder; like low self-esteem, it correlates with aggro and antisocial behavior; extrinsic, protects ego (egotism), easily broken or diminished, contingent upon validation
secure self-esteem
is less fragile b/c it is contingent on external evaluations; to feel accepted for who we are relieves pressures to succeed and enable us to focus beyond ourselves; by losing ourselves in relationships and purposes larger than self, we may achieve this and a greater quality of life; intrinsic, stable
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications; "me-focused" / self-serving
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly; "we-focused" / group focused
person-situation controversy
argument between trait theorists and social-cognitive; is behavior genetically driven or do situations force out different personalities?
learned helplessness
uncontrollable bad events -> perceived lack of control -> generalized helpless behavior / external locus of control
tyranny of choice
not a benefit of personal control; too many options -> stress, regret

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