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Geology Vocab - 1


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  • type of volcanic rock generated by partial melting of basaltic crust and its associated sediment 
Andesitic Volcanism
  • volcanic activity associated with subduction zones
  • andesitic rock generated by partial melting of basaltic crust
  • A zone of the earth's mantle
  • that lies beneath the lithosphere
  • consists of several hundred kilometers of deformable rock.
Convergent Plate Boundary
  • lithospheric plates are moving toward each other.
  • denser plate is usually subducted
  • associated with large earthquakes, often with deep foci
  • andesitic volcanism
  • Inner-most part of Earth's concentric structure
  • Hot, dense and metallic
  • Molten outer core and solid inner core
  • thin, brittle, mostly felsic
  • outermost part of Earth's structure
  • composed of continental and oceanic
Divergent Plate Boundary
  • lithospheric plates are moving away from each other.
  • Generates basaltic volcanism, many small earthquakes
  • pyroclastic deposit consisting of large and small angular fragments of volcanic rock
  • generated by liquefaction of debris on sides of volcano
  • outer-most part of Earth's structure
  • composed of felsic materials
  • brittle, plastic in part
  • crustal plates are part of lithosphere
  • Hot, thick, rocky, dense
  • Between core and lithosphere
  • Composed of mafic minerals
  • Convection drives plate motion at surface
Oceanic Ridge
  • Divergent plate boundary
  • Submarine mountain chain associated with volcanism, earthquakes
  • spreading and generation of new basaltic oceanic crust
Partial Melting
  • process by which only some portions of basaltic crust are melted
Plate Tectonics
the theory that Earth's surface consists of many large and small, rigid crustal plates that move randomly, interacting at their edges to produce a variety of features
  • igneous rock formed from variable sized fragments of other igneous rocks
  • SiO4 molecules in lava
  • silica content is highest in felsic rocks and lowest in mafic rocks
  • silica content controls gas escape and relative explosivity of eruption
  • higher silica - more explosive
Strato Volcano
  • conical, steep-sided, symmetrical volcano
  • composed of alternating layers of silicic lavas and pyroclastics.
  • typical subduction zone volcano
Subduction Zone
  • Convergent Plate Boundary
  • Region where one plate is pushed beneath another
  • Associated with volcanism, earthquakes
Transform fault
  • transform plate boundary
  • fault common on oceanic ridges related to differential rates of crustal spreading
Transform Plate Boundary
  • lithospheric plates are moving side-by-side, horizontally
  • Deepest part of ocen basins
  • Usually adjacent to continents
Volcanic Arc
  • chain of volcanoes associated with subduction zones

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