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Phis test 2


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branching cell, single central nucleus, visible striations and involuntary
Spindle-shaped cells, single central nucleus, lack visible striations and involuntary
elongated, multiple peripheral nuclei, visible striations and voluntary
- Cell membrane - Endoplasmic Reticulum - Muscle Cell
-Sarcolema -Sarcoplasmic Reticulum -Muscle Fiber
Thin filaments
Thicker filaments
Isometric Contraction
Can generate force without shortening; pressing agianst the wall
Isotonic Contraction
Can shorten without generating force; drinking water
According to the definitions of work and power, which contraction wouldnt work?
The maximum ability to do work at high rate is?
1/3 of 0 velocity and max velocity
stimulate a muscle, a muscle before it is relaxed, it stays contracted
Tetanic Stimulation
sensation that leads to tetany, 50-55 stimulations per second
either contracts or it doesnt
The smaller the motor unit
the greater muscle control
Which muscle cell type is responsible for the following: - transmit depolarizations to cells - transmit action potentials from one to the next - contract spontaneously - never has a stable action potential at rest so drifts until cell depolarizes
smooth muscle cells
Aerobic Respiration
uses oxygen in mitochondria to produce ATP and generates 2/3 atp
Anaerobic Pathway
comes in and replaces oxygen and gets rid of lactic acid
Lactic Acid
causes muscle fatigue and the muscle refuses to contract anymore
Red muscle
darker, lots of myoglobin, which creates a reservoir of oxygen
White muscle
less myoglobin, more actin and myosin, no reservoir of oxygen, resulting in fatigue faster
What do Hypertrophy and Atropy mean?
hyper- increase in cell size atrophy- decrease in cel size
What are the three types of muscles within the heart?
Ventricular muscle, Atrial muscles, Conducting muscle
Cardiac muscles have syncytion, what does this mean and what are the two types?
Cells can communicate Atrial syncytion and Ventricular syncytion
When the heart contracts, what happens? when it relaxes?
Blood leaves the arteries Blood refills and heart is a closed system
If there is more pressure on one side of a valve then the other,what happens?
The valve will open
Action potential is one part of one atria and propagates through the cell until it goes through which period?
Refractory period
What brings depolarization to the ventricle from atrium?
Ventricle conducting fibers
Ventricular filling
When the heart chambers are relaxed blood flows into the atria through the Av valves into the ventricles, where the pressure is lower, the atria then contract and force the remaining blood into the ventricles
Ventricular systole
As the ventricles contract, interventricular pressure rises and closing the AV valves, briefly closing the ventricle chambers, rising ventricular pressure forces the semilunar ventricle to open, blood is ejected from the heart to the lungs
Isovolumetric relaxation
ventricles relax and ventricular pressure drops, blood backflows and, closing semilunar valves, and ventricles are totally closed again
When the atrial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure, AV valves open and ventricular filling, what will occur?
Ventricular filling
Pressure changes within the heart effect the alternating of what?
The relaxing and contracting of the muscle
Approxmiatly how much blood is pumped through the heart per minute?
Heart rate
is the number of times the heart beats per minute, approx 75 times
What is stroke volume?
The difference between end diastolic volume and end systolic volume
End diastolic volume
the amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of relaxating, about 200 mL
End systolic volume
the amount of blood remaining in each ventricle at the end of contracting, about -75 mL
What nerve activity increases heart rate?
Sympathetic nerve activity
Starlings Law of the Heart
Amount of blood the heart will eject in the next stroke equal to the amount of blood that entered in the last stroke
Carotid Artery
pressure receptor,sends receptors to the brain to intiate change between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
Blood Pressure
Is the force that blood exerts against the blood vessels walls
Systolic Pressure
The highest pressure exerted by the blood against, the artery walls, result of ventricular contraction, normally about 120mm of mercury
Diastolic Pressure
The lowest pressure in the artery, and is a result of the ventricle relaxation, normally around 80 mm of mercury
Pulse pressure
The difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure
Peripheral Resistance
The opposing force encountered by blood as a result of friction between blood and vessel walls, can affect blood pressure
What three factors affect peripheral resistance?
Blood viscosity,total blood vessel length,vessel diameter
What factors effect blood pressure?(3)
Vessel elasticity, blood volume, and cardiac output
What is a short term way to regulate high blood pressure?Low blood pressure?
Increase in parasympathetic activity; Increase in parasympathetic activity
What is a long term way to regulate blood pressure?
controlling blood volume
The process by which organs and tissues in the body self regulates blood delivery
SA Node
sets the pace for the entire heart
Internodal pathway
carries impulses from SA node to AV node
AV node
allows atria to contract before ventricles
Av bundles
link between atria and ventricles
Bundle branches
convey the impulse down the impulse down the interventricular septum
Purkinje fibers
convey the impulse throughout the ventricular walls
What is main function of the respiratory system?
Brings in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide
List the pathway air takes?
Nose,pharynx,larynx,trachea, bronchi,bronchioles,terminal bronchioles,alveoli
What are the lungs surrounded by and what does this help reduce?
Pleural membrane, friction
Pulmonary arteries
carry oxygen-poor, carbon dioxide rich from right ventricle to lungs
Systemic veins
carry oxygen-poor, carbon dioxide-rich blood from body tissues to right atrium
Pulmonary veins
carry oxygen-rich, carbon dioxide-poor from lungs to left atrium
Systemic arteries
carry oxygen-rich, carbon dioxide-poor blood from left ventricle to body tissues
Fill in the blanks: The _______ receives oxygen poor blood from the ______, blood moves to the _______ and is pumped out the ______into the lungs
right atrium, systemic veins, right ventricle,pulmonary arteries
The _____ receives oxygenated blood from the ________ , blood moves to the _______ and is pumped out the ______ to the body tissues
left atrium,pulmonary veins, left ventricle,systemic arteries
Inhalation,an active process, the diaphragm contracts, increasing the volume decreases the pressure of thoracic cavity and the lungs
Exhalation,a passive process in which the diaphragm and external intercostals muscles relax and the elastic lungs and thoracic wall recoil inward; this decreases the volume and therefore increases the pressure of the thoracic cavity
If the thoracic wall is punctured, air enters the pleural cavity and moves from high to low pressure, this causes what?
Pneumothorax or lungs collasping
Sympathetic nerve activity causes the bronchioles to what? Parasympathetic?
Sympathetic-relaxing of bronchioles Para-contraction of the bronchioles
In order to change respiratory rate what two things must change?
1.pressure 2.amount of resistance
The external intercostal muscles do what? the internal intercostal muscles?
EIM-draws ribs upward and away from the body and expands thoracic cavity IIM-ribs are closer to the body
Chronic obstruction pulmonary disorders are a result of what?
Chronic increase in airway resistance
What are the three factors that effect lung elasticity?
Surface tension LaPlace Pulmonary surfactant
What are the volume parameters for: inflated lung,deflated lung,tidal volume,inspiratory reserve and expirtatory reserve?
What do each of the following equations equal: Tidal volume + Inspiratory Reserve Tidal volume + Expiratory Reserve Inspiratory reserve+expiratory reserve
Inspiratory Capacity,Expiratory Capacity and Vital Capacity
What the average Forced Expiration in one second(FEV1) for a normal adult; for a person with COPD.
80 percent of the air with have been exhaled within the first second, and 100 percent by three seconds; cant exhale 80 percent within the first second
Fill in the blank:Low___ causes the_____ to constrict and high ____ causes the_____ to dilate
Internal respiration
The exchange of gases between tissue cells and the systemic capillaries
External respiration
the exchange of gases between the alveoli in the lungs and the pulmonary capillaries
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli and oxygen diffuses alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries in which respiration?
Oxygen diffuses from systemic capillaries into the cells; while Carbon dioxide diffuses from cells into systemic capillaries in which respiration?
What is the Bohr effect?
The interaction between hydrogen ion binding and hemoglobins affinity for oxygen, by forming hydrogen ions, carbon dioxide loading and oxygen unloading into the tissues
Within the lungs what happens during respiration?(2)
1.Carbon dioxide is unloaded 2.Oxygen is loaded 98 percent hemoglobin saturation
Within the tissues what happens during respiration?(2)
1.Oxygen unloaded 2.Carbon dioxide is loaded 75 percent hemoglobin saturation
When oxygen binds with hemoglobin it becomes what?

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