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Clinical Anatomy


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A jogger has stepped in a pothole and sprained his ankle. What systems have suffered damage?
The muscular and skeletal system would suffer from a sprained ankle.
21. A newborn baby is unable to hold down any milk. Examination reveals a developmental disorder in which the esophagus fails to connect to the stomach. What survivals needs are most immediately threatened?
The survival needs threatened from this disorder would be nourishment and water.
22. The Chan family was traveling in their van and had a minor accident. The children in the back seat were wearing lab belts but they still sustained bruises around the abdomen and had some internal organ injuries. Why is this area more vulnerable to da
This area is more vulnerable to damage than others because there are no bones there to protect the organs in the area.
23. John, a patient at Jones City Hospital, is in tough shape. He has a hernia in his inguinal region, pain from an infected kidney in his lumbar region, and severe bruises and swelling in his public region. Explain where each of these regions is located
John’s hernia is where the legs meet the trunk. The pain from the infected kidney is in his lower back. He has bruises in his genital area.
26. It is determined that a patient is in acidosis. What does this mean, and would you treat the condition with a chemical that would raise or lower the pH?
Acidosis – blood becomes acidic. You would treat this by using a chemical that will lower the pH
27. A newborn is diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia, a genetic disease in which substitution of the one amino acid results in abnormal hemoglobin. Explain to the parents how the substitution can have such a drastic effect on the structure of the protein.
The oxygen cannot bind to the hemoglobin b/c of the abnormal shape – no oxygen in blood.
28. Johnny’s body temperature is spiking upward. When it reaches 104F, his mother puts in a call to the pediatrician. She is advised to give Johnny children’s aspirin and sponge his body with cool to tepid water to prevent a further rise in temperatu
Johnny can die if his body temperature becomes too hot.
29. Mrs. Gallo’s physician suspects that she is showing the initial signs of multiple sclerosis, a disease characterized by the formation of hardened plaques in the insulting sheaths surrounding nerve fibers. What medical imaging technique will the phy
Serial magnetic resonance (MR)
24. Johnny lacerated his arm and rushed home to Mom so she could fix it. His mother poured hydrogen peroxide over the area and it bubbled vigorously where it came in contacted with the wound. Since you can expect that cells were ruptured in the injured a
The cells were getting cleaned out and trying to repair themselves
25. The epidermis (epithelium of the cutaneous membrane or skin) is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Explain why that epithelium is mush better suited for protecting the body’s external surface than a mucosa consisting of a simple columnar
The epithelium is better because it has many layers of cells while the simple columnar only has one layer of cells so it would not be very protective.
26. Streptomycin (an antibiotic) binds to the small ribosomal subunit of bacteria (but not to the ribosomes of the host cells infected by bacteria). The result is the misreading of bacteria mRNA and the breakup of polysomes. What process is being affecte
Translation, kills bacteria cells because the message gets lost
27. Systemic lupus erythematosus (often simply called lupus) is a condition that sometimes affects young women. It is a chronic (persistent) inflammation that affects all or most of the connective tissue proper in the body. Suzy is told by her doctor tha
The doctor would say it would be widespread.
28. Mrs. Linsey sees her gynecologist because she is unable to become pregnant. The doctor discovers granulation tissue in her vaginal canal and explains that sperm are susceptible to some of the same chemicals are bacteria. What is inhibiting the sperm?
The antibacterial secretions of the vagina.
18. Mrs. Ibanez volunterred to help at a hospital for children with cancer. When she first entered the cancer ward, she was upset by the fact that most of the children had no hair. What is the explanation for their baldness?
The children were probably going through chemotherapy which kills rapidly dividing cells which cause hair follicles to grow.
19. A new mother brings her infant to the clinic, worried about a yellowish, scummy deposit that has built up on the baby’s scalp. What is this condition called, and is it serious?
The body probably has sohorreha which is just yellow because of all the oil there, if the babies scalp is just thouraly washed it should go away. It really is not that serious.
20. Patients in hospital beds are rotated every 2 hours to prevent bedsores. Exactly why is this effective?
Bedsores are caused by laying on one region of your body for a long time and blood does not get to it. If the bed are bodies are moved then the bedsores won’t be created.
21. Count Dracula, the most famous vampire of legends, was based on a real person who lived in eastern Europe about 600 years ago. He killed at least 200,000 people in the region he ruled. He was indeed a monster, even though he was not a real vampire. L
Dracula could have had porphyria.
22. After studying the skin in anatomy class, Toby grabbed the large “love handles” at his waist and said, “I have too thick a hypodermis, but that’s ok because this layer performs some valuable functions!” What are the functions of they hypode
Toby’s love handles keep him warm, store fat, and keep organs together.
23. A man got his finger caught in a machine at the factory. The damage was less serious than expected, but nonetheless, the entire nail was torn from his right inxdex finger. The parts lost were the body, rood, bed, matrix, and cuticle of the nail. Firs
The nail will probably not grow back. Body=the visable attached part, Root=under the skin area, Bed=the stratum basle of the epidermis, Cuticle=the skin around the bottom of nail, Matrix=responsible for nail growth
24. In case of a ruptured appendix, what serous membrane is likely to become infected? Why can this be life-threatening?
It can be life threatening because it keeps good vascularized organs all together. The peritoneum is likely to be infected or hurt.
38. Antonio is hit in the face with a football during practice. An X-ray reveals multiple fractures of the bones around an orbit. Name the bones that form margins of the orbit.
Lacrimal, Zygomatic, Ethmoid, Spheniod
39. Mrs. Bruso, a woman in her 80s, is brought to the clinic with a fractured hip. X-rays reveal compression fractures in her lower vertebral column and extremely low bone density in her vertebrae, hip bones, and femurs. What are the condition, cause, an
The condition is weak bones, the cause is probably not enough calcium, and the treatment is drink lots of milk.
40. Jack, a young man, is treated at the clinic for an accident in which he hit his forehead. When he returns for a checkup, he complains that he can’t smell anything. A hurried X-ray of his head reveals a fracture. What part of which bone was fracture
The sides
41. A middle aged woman comes to the clinic complanining of stiff, painful joints and increased immobility of her finger joints. A glance at her hands reveals knobby, deformed knuckles. What condition will be tested for?
Rhyeumatoid Arthritis
42. At his 94th birthday party, James was complimented on how good he looked and was asked about his health. He replied, “I feel good most of the time, but some of my joints ache and are stiff, especially my knees, hips and lower back, and especially i
43. Janet, a ten year old girl, is brought to the clinic after falling out of a tree. An X-ray shows she has small fractures of the transverse processes of T3 and T5 on the right side. Janet will be watched for what abnormal spinal curvature over the nex
29. Out of control during a temper tantrum, Malcom smashed his fist through a glass door. Several tendons were sliced through at the anterior wrist. What movements are likely to be lost if tendon repair is not possible?
If he does not repair his wrist he will be unable to form a fist or grab things.
30. During an overambitious workout, a high school athlete pulls some muscles by forcing his knee to extension when his hip already fully flexed. What muscles does he pull?
He pulled his hamstrings.
31. An emergency appendectomy is preformed on Mr. Geiger. The incision was made at the lateral edge of the right iliac abdominopelvic region. Was his rectus abdominis cut?
No, because the cut was not in the correction region
32. Susan, a massage therapist, was giving Mr. Graves a backrub. What two broad superficial muscles of the back were receiving the bulk of her attention?
The majority of the back is coveredwith the trapizus and latisimus dorsi so they would get the most attention.
33. Mrs. Sanchez says that her 6-year-old son seems to be unusually clumsy and tires easily. The doctor notices that his calf muscles appear to be normal in size. If anything, they seem a bit enlarged rather than wasted. For what condition must the boy b
The boy might have Duchesnne dystrophy of the muscles and it could be very dangerous if it moves to the respritory system.
34. People with chronic back pain occasionally get relief from a tummy tuck. How does this help?
Weight from the tummy stresses back, less weight=less weight to lift with the back
35. Drugs are used to relax muscles during major surgery. Which of the two chemicals described next would make the best muscle relaxant and why? Chemical A binds with the blocks Ach receptors on muscle cells. Chemical B floods the sarcoplasm of muscle ce
Chemical A would be the best choice because it would not stimulate the muscle and would relaxe it. Chemical B would irritate the muscles.
40. After surgery., patient are often temporarily unable to urinate, and bowel sounds are absent. Identify the division of the autonomic nervous system that is affected by anesthesia.
41. A brain tumor is found in a CT scan of Mr. Childs’s head. The physician is assuming that it is not a sexondary tumor (i.e. it did not spread from another part of the body) because an exhaustive workup has revealed no signs of cancer elsewhere in Mr
Since the nerve cells are amitotic, the tumor is most likely a glioma, developing from one of the types of neuroglia.
42. Amy, a high-strung teenager, was suddenly startled by a loud band that sounded like a gunshot. Her heartbeat accelerated rapidly. When she realized that the noise was only a car backfiring, she felt greatly relieved but her heart kept beating heavily
During sympathetic activation large amounts of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla pour into the blood. It will take time for the hormone to be broken down throughout the body.
43. While working in the emergency room, you admit two patients who were in an auto collision. On eis dead on arrival, having sustained a severed spinal cord at the level of C2. The other patient suffered a similar injury but at the level of C6 and is st
Cell bodies of neurons hwose axons contribute to the phrenic nerve lie in the C1-C4 segments of the spinal cord. Transection of the cord at this level at C2 in the first victim of the auto accident-blocks impulses from the respiratory centers in the brain stem that signal these motor neurons, thereby inactivating them and halting the respiratory movements of the diaphragm. This leads to death. Transection of the cord inferior to C1-C4 does not interrupt this respiratory nervous pathway, so the phrenic nerves are still functional and breathing remains normal
44. You have been told that the superior and medial part of the right precentral gyrus of your patient’s brain has been destroyed by a stroke. What part of the body is the patient unable to move? On which side right or left?
The stroke has destroyed the trunk, hip, and lower limb region of the primary motor cortex that corresponds to those paralyzed areas on the left side of the body.
29. An infant girl with strabismus is brought into the clinic. Tests show that she can control both eyeys independently. What therapy will be tried before surgery?
If the strong eye is patched it forces the weaker eye muscles to work harder
30. A man in his early 60s comes to the clinic complaining of fuzzy vision. An eye examination reveals clouding of his lenses. What is his problem and what factors might have contributed to it?
Smoking, UV radiation, cataract are some factors that might have contributed to it.
31. Alinism is a condition in which melanin pigment is not made. How do you think vision is affected by albinism?
The vision is poor because if the eye does not have pigment then the light scatters before it focuses.
32. A man claiming to have difficulty seeing at night seeks help at the clinic. What is the technical name for this disorder? What dietary supplement will be recommended? If the condition has progressed too far, what retinal structures will be degenerate
The technical name is nightblindness. The diatery supplement is vitamin A. The rods of the eye can become damaged.
33. A child is brought to the speech therapist because she does not pronounce high-pitched sounds (like “s”) if it is determined that the spiral organ of Corti is the source of the problem, which region of the organ would be defective? Is this conduc
The proximal end close to the oval window would be defective. The condition is sensorineural.
34. Little Biff’s uncle tells the physician that 3-year-old Biff has frequent earaches and that a neighbor claims that Biff needs to have “ear tubes” put in. Upon questioning, the uncle reveals that Biff is taking swimming lessons and he can’t re
Otitis externa, because of the pool bacteria, confirmed by inflamed external ear canal. Otitis recommends the middle ear is inflamed. Ear tubes may be needed for the bulging eardrum.
35. Brian is brought to the clinic by his parents, who noticed that his right eye does not rotate laterally very well. The doctor explains that the nerve serving the lateral rectus muscle is not functioning properly. What nerve is he referring to?
He is referring to the abducens nerve.
36. When Mrs. Martinez visits her ophthalmologist, she complains of pain in her right eye. The intraocular pressure of that eye is found to be abdomally elevated. What is the name of Mrs. Martinez’s probably condition? What causes it? What ight be the
Martinez’s probable condition is glaucoma. The thing that causes it would be bad draining of the aqueous humor. If not corrected blindness could occur.
Dosage Calculations

X = Q X D/H

D= 100 mg
H= 50 mg
Q= 5 mL
Administer _____t

X = 5 * 100/50
X = 500/50
X = 10 mL (1teaspoon = 5mL)

Dosage Calculations

375mg/250mg X5mL/250mg X 1/5mL =

375mg divided by 250mg X 1t/5mL = 1.5 teaspoon

Dosage Calculations

On Hand (First #) Order
Divided By = X
On Hand (Second #)
X =

20mg 60mg
2 mL X

[2mL times 60mg =120mg/20mg]= 6 mL

Dosage Calculations

D: 60mEq
H: 40mEq
Q: 15 mL

40mEq 60mEq
15 mL X

15mL times 60mg =900mg/40mEq =22.5 mL

Dosage Calculations

Order: Atropine gr 1/100 IM on call to OR
Hand: Atropine 0.4 mg/ml
Administer: ______ mL

1st step is to change "grains" to "mg."

1 grain = 60mg

therefore... gr 1 X 60 mg
100 gr 1

60 = 0.6mg (so the order actually calls for 0.6mg atropine)

0.6mg X 1ml = 0.6 = 1.5ml (since "mg" cancels out, you are left with ml)
0.4mg 0.4

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