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Clinical Chemistry


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Formula for Creatinine Clearance
Ccr = UV/P x 1.73/A
Formula for Urea Clearance
Uun/BUN x V x 1.73/A
Formula for Anion Gap
[Na] + [K] - [Cl+HCO3]
Formula to find LDL levels
Total Cholesterol - (HDL + triglycerides)/5
Formula for FTI
Total T4- T3 uptake / 100
Normal Anion Gap
8-16 mMOl/L
partial alveolar CO2 pressure
40 mm Hg
partial alveolar O2 pressure
99.92 mm Hg
Normal H+ concentration in the blood
40 nMol/L
Henderson Has. equation for acid base
pH = pKa- log [total Co2 - .03 pCo2]/[.03 p Co2]

pKa = 6.1
Urine specific gravity
1.003- 1.035 g/ml
Specific gravity vs. Osmality
Specific gravity measures density whereas osmality measures parts per unit mass
Buffers in body
1) proteins
2) PO4 (40%)
3) HCO3 (60%)
normal creatinine levels
70-157 ml/min/m2
Normal urea levels
64-99 ml/min/m2
Definition of anion gap
difference between the usually unmeasured cations and the unmeasured anions
Normal A/G ratios
Definition of Buffer capacity
Amt of base consumed before upper limit of pH is reached

amt of acid consumed before lower limit of pH is reached
normal osmalality
less than 10 mOsm
Tips for case studies
1) solve for all variables
2) acidotic or alkolotic
3) respitory or metabolic
4) treatment recommended
formula for osmalality
1.86 + glucose + BUN +9
------- ---
18 28
HCO3 levels
Plasm ISF Cell
128 31 8
Testing BUN
1) coupled enzyme test
2) indicator dye
urinary pH
4.7 ---7.8
urine production pathway
ornathine---> citrulline ---->
arginine----> oranthine---> urea
function of kidney
urine formation
regulation of fluids/ electrol
regulation of acid/base
excretion of waste
hormone function
protein conservation
detection of proteins in urine
+ tetrabromphenol blue
turns green/blue

- tetrabromphenol blue
turns yellow
O2 saturation
% total hemoglobin present as oxygenated hemoglobin
osmotic pressure depends on:
the total number of solute particles in solution
definition of ascites
leakage of fluids out of vascular space into peritoneal space
increase in dissolved particles:
decreases freezing point
decreases vapor pressure
increases osmotic pressure
increases boiling point
hypotonic vs hypertonic
hypertonic: more H2O inside
H2o goes out
cells shrink
more H2O outside
cells swell
ionic composition for Na+
plasma ISF cell
142 145 10
Normal range of Na+
80--180 mg/dL
ionic composition for K+
plasma ISF cell
4 4 156
redistribution caused by:
insulin deficiency
Beta Blockers
Excretion of H+
1) Rxn filtered buffers
2) filtered bicarb
3) Rx with NH3
4) electrolyte exchange

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