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Modern Chem 4


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Particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy.
Photoelectric Effect
The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal.
Waves overlap, resulting in a reduction of energy in some areas and an increase of energy in others.
The minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom. (E=hv)
Detected by their interaction with photons.
Hund's Rule
Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin state.
Ground State
The lowest energy state of an atom.
Quantum numbers
The properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals.
Quantum Theory
Describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
indicates the shape of orbital (L)
Electron Shell
Where more than one electron have the same n value.
A three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron.
Inner-Shell Electrons
Electrons that are not in the highest-occupied energy level.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
All the forms of electromagnetic radiation.
The electron can circle the nucleus only in allowed paths.
Highest-Occupied Energy Level
the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum numbers.
Electromagnetic Radiation
A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space. They move at a constant speed of 3.00 x 108 meters per second.
Energy must be added to an atom in order to move an electron from a lower energy level to a higher energy level.
Continuous Spectrum
The emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
Principal Quantum Number
Indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron (n).
Magnetic Quantum Number
Indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus (m).
The bending of a wave as it passes by the edge of an object or through a small opening.
Line-Emission Spectrum
When a narrow beam of emitted light was shined through a prism, it was separated into four specific colors of the visible spectrum.
Ground-State Electron Configuration
The lowest energy arrangement of the electrons for each element.
Aufbau Principle
An electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it.
The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves.
Electron Configuration
Arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Quantum theory
A new atomic theory that observes a continuous spectrum.
The number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle.
Excited State
A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.
Noble-Gas Configuration
Refers to an outer main energy level occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons.
Spin Quantum Number
Has only two possible values (1/2 and -1/2) which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital.
When an electron falls to a lower energy level, a photon is emitted.
Noble Gases
The Group 18 elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon)

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