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chem hons s1!

saratoga high chem hons final semester 1


undefined, object
copy deck
judgment about an observation
smallest particle of an element that retains properties of that element
coined "atom"
not uniform composition; 2 or more phases
scientist who related energy of a wave to its frequency
limiting reactant
reactant that runs out (determines amount of product formed)
decomposition reaction
1 thing turns into 2 things
carbon dating
determining the age of objects using the ratio of C-12 to C-14
beta particle
converts neutrons into protons; increases atomic number by 1; no mass; decreases neutrons by 1
blend of 2 or more substances
simplest form of matter
gamma radiation
usually emitted w/ alpha + beta particles; electromagnetic radiation; no mass, no charge=no change in mass when emitted
unit cell
smallest group of particles within a crystal which retains the geometric shape of the crystal
density of water
1g or 1 mL
vapor pressure
pressure due to the gas above the liquid
binary compound
compound ending in -ide; only has 2 elements in it
empirical formula
lower whole number ratio of atoms of the elements in a compound
symbol for wavelength
negative q value
heat flowing out of system; heat released; "exothermic"; feels warm
melting point
temp at which a solid melts and becomes a liquid
oil drop experiment: determined exact charge of electron; found mass of electron = 1/1840 mass of H atom
atmospheric pressure
pressure caused by gas particles in air/atmosphere
double replacement reaction
rxn where given 2 compounds, cations trade places
dalton's atomic theory
all elements composed of atoms; diff properties of diff elements can be explained by fact that diff atoms are fundamentally diff; each element made from 1 kind of atom; atoms of diff elements combine in whole number ratios to form compounds; chem rxns change how atoms bonded to each other
measures atmospheric air pressure
6.02 x 10^23 representative particles/mole
heisenberg uncertainty principle
can't know an object's position and motion at the same time
electromagnetic radiation
energy; travels in waves; visible light is a small section of spectrum
single replacement reaction
element + compound turns into new compound + element
1/2 mv^2
kinetic energy formula
discovered neutron
different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state
kinetic energy
energy of motion
fission reaction
the splitting of a nucleus
amorphous solids
solids which lack an ordered internal structure (rubber, glass)
alpha emission
radiation: cannot penetrate dead skin, paper; can penetrate soft tissue
E = h x nu
planck's constant where h = 6.62 x 10^-34
percent error
(absolute value of error/accepted value) x 100%
crystalline solid
have orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, molecules that make up the solid
metallic bond
attraction of valence electron for positively charge metal ion; bond b/t 2 metals
how close a set of measurements is to each other
symbol for frequency
atoms with differing numbers of neutrons; differing masses
3.0 x 10^8 m/s
speed of light = c = speed of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum
specific gravity
compares density of substance to density of a reference substance
discovered proton
standard temperature and pressure
molecular compound
electrons shared; 2 non-metals; low melting/boiling points; liquid or gas at room temp
observe with senses
heat stops moving; heat moves from hot to cold until the temps are equal
molar mass
the mass of one mole of any substance; atomic mass in grams
the conversion of one element into another
aufbau principle
electron enters orbitals with lower energy first
hess' law
if 2 or more chemical rxns combine to give a final equation then you can add the deltaH values to get the final deltaH
jj thomson
discovered electron; cathode ray tube; plum pudding model
chemical reaction
change from reactants to products; rearrangement of bonds between atoms
critical point
liquid and gas indistinguishable (super critical fluid)
law of conservation of energy
energy cannot be created nor destroyed
combination reaction
2 things combine to form 1 thing
wrote mathematical equation for location of electron; based on probability
amount of time it takes for half the atoms of a radioactive isotope to decay to products
gas pressure
the force exerted by gas particles (in motion) hitting a body
arranged elements by atomic number
amount of energy required to raise 1g water 1degree Celcius
transuranium elements
elements with atomic numbers greater than 92; manmade; radioactive
energy that is transferred from one substance to another due to temperature differences; can't measure it directly (only its effects)
combustion reaction
rxn that involves burning something in oxygen
representative unit
formula unit (like a "molecule)
number of molecules; number of moles
what coefficients in chem rxns represent
elastic collision
energy is transferred totally from one particle to another
converts protons into neutrons; decreases atomic number by 1; no mass; increases number of neutrons by 1
discovered nucleus; bombarded gold foil with pos alpha particles
molecular formula
"real" formula; same as or some whole number multiple of the empirical formula
absolute zero
0 K, or -273 degrees celcius; all molecular motion stops
no particles (air) --> no force --> no pressure
the study of heat changes that occur during a reaction
percent mass
(mass of element in compound/molar mass of compound) x 100%
excess reactant
the reactant that is left over
boiling point
when vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure
760 mm Hg; 101.3 kPa
1 atmosphere
light quanta
gamma emission
radiation: can be stopped by several inches of Pb or concrete
lambda = h/mv
debroglie equation
2 or more elements chemically combined that can only be separated with a chemical reaction
photoelectric effect
shine light on metal to observe effects
periodic law
certain properties of elements repeat periodically when arranged by atomic number
law of conservation of mass
matter cannot be created nor destroyed (it can be rearranged to form new bonds)
the capacity to do work or the ability to supply heat
triple point
where all three phases coexist
hund's rule
electrons going into orbitals w/ same energy fill one electron per orbital all with same spins
polyatomic ions
tightly bound groups of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a charge
homogeneous mixture
uniform composition; same throughout; "one phase"
positive q value
heat flows into system; heat is absorbed; "endothermic"; takes in heat; feels cold
having the same electron configuration
percent yield
(actual yield/theoretical yield) x 100%
specific heat x mass of a substance
equation for heat capacity
pauli exclusion principle
orbitals may hold at most two electrons; must have opposite spins
neils bohr
planetary model: electrons move in fixed paths aroun nucleus, have fixed energy
mass of proton; mass of neutron
energy levels
areas around nucleus where electrons most likely to be found
mixture of 2 or more elements, one of which is a metal
kinetic theory
theory: particles in all states of matter are in constant motion
(% abundance) x (mass of 1 isotope) + (% abundance) x (mass of 1 isotope)
average atomic mass
dmitri mendeleev
developed periodic table (arranged elements by mass, similar properties)
heat capacity
amount of energy (heat) required to raise temp of a specific OBJECT
how close a measurement is to the "true" value
beta emission
radiation: can be stopped by wood/aluminum foil
accepted value - experimental value
ionic compound
electrostatic attraction; metal + nonmetal; high melting/boiling points; crystalline solids at room temp
shielding effect
electrons closer to nucleus shield outer electrons from nuclear pull
alpha particle
helium particle; decreases atomic number by 2, mass by 4, neutrons by 2
22.4 L
1 mole of any gas at STP
potential energy
stored energy (chemical energy)
a cooling process; molecules at a higher temperature leave to become gas, cooler particles left over
specific heat
amount of energy required to raise 1g of a SUBSTANCE 1 degree celcius

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