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Chem-Chap 4

Chemistry Chapter 4 Vocabulary

Terms

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polyatomic ions
covalently bonded groups of atoms that carry a net electrical charge
network solid
solid where the lattice sites are occupied by atoms that are covalently bonded to each other
lattice site
individual location occupied by a particle in a crystal lattice
electronegativity
tendency of an atom to attract shared electrons of a covalent bond
polar molecule
molecule that contains polarized bonds and where the resulting charges are distributed unsymmetrically throughout the molecule
nonpolar molecule
molecule that contains no polarized bonds, or a molecule containing polarized bonds in which the resulting charges are distributed symmetrically throughout the molecule
Lewis structure
representation of an atom or ion where the elemental symbol represents the atomic nucleus and all but the valence shell electrons. the valence shell electrons are represented by dots arranged around the elemental symbol
formula weight
sum of the atomic weights of the atoms shown in the formula of an ionic compound
covalent bond
attractive force that results between 2 atoms that are both attracted to a shared pair of electrons
bond polarization
result of shared electrons being attracted to the more electronegative atom of a bonded pair of atoms
octet rule
rule for predicting electron behavior in reacting atoms. atoms will gain or lose electrons to achieve an out electron arrangement identical to that of a noble gas (usually with 8 electrons in valence shell)
double and triple bonds
bonds resulting from the sharing of 2 and 3 pairs of electrons
hydrogen bonding
result of attractive dipolar forces between molecules where the H2 atoms are covalently bonded to very electronegative elements (O, N or F)
nonpolar covalent bond
covalent bond where the bonding pair of electrons is shared equally by the bonded atoms
binary compound
compound made up of two different elements
metallic bond
attractive force responsible for holding solid metals together. originated from the attraction between positively charged atomic kernels that occupy the lattice sites and mobile electrons that move freely throughout the lattice
ionic bond
attractive force that holds together ions of opposite charge
isoelectronic
'same electronic' - used to describe atoms or ions that have identical electronic configurations
simple ion
atom that has aquired a net positive or negative charge by losing or gaining electrons
dipolar force
attractive force that exists between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another
dispersion forces
very weak attractive forces acting between the particles of all matter. result from momentary nonsymmetric electron distributions in molecules or atoms
polar covalent bond
covalent bond that shows bond polarization (bonding electrons are shared unequally)
crystal lattice
rigid 3-D arrangement of particles
VSEPR Theory
theory based on the mutual repulsion of electron pairs. used to predict molecular shapes

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