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10H Chem Test Ch. 3 and 4


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Who thought matter was continuous? Was this person right?
Aristotle, no this person was not right.
Who is Democratis? What did he believe? Was he correct?
Democritis is a philospher who believed matter was not continous?
Who is John Dalton?
John Dalton was a thirteen year old school teacher who came up with "Dalton's Atomic Theory"
List the rules in Dalton's Atomic Theory.
1. All elements are made up of atoms.
2. All atoms of a particular element are identical.
3. In a chemical reaction, atoms combine chemically to form compounds, and the ratio is always small whole numbers.
4. In a chemical reaction, atoms may rearrange but are conserved.
Who formed the Law of Conservation of Matter? Explain this person's backround.
Antoinne LaVoisier, a French chemist who was executed during the French Revolution because of his position as a tax collector.
What law(s) did Joseph Proust come up with? The law(s) states what?
Proust's Law of Definite Composition or law of Depth and Proportions. This states that in a chemical reaction, atoms combine chemically to form small, whole number ratios. ex: H2O, NaCl
What does Dalton's Law of Multiple Proportions state?
This law states that atoms that combine to form compounds may have more than one combining ratio, but the ratio is always small, whole numbers. Ex: 2:16 H2O, 1:8 H2O2, 2:32, 1:16
Do the compounds H20 and H2O2 exist? Prove mathematically.
Use the D.C.M.D. Hy2/Ox=2/16=1.25, Hy2/Ox2=2/32=0.625, 0.125/0.625=2.
Who is the "Electron Guy"? What was the special model he made called and why?
J.J. Thompson made the atomic model called Plum Pudding. It was called Plum Pudding because the model consisted of a positive sphere that was neutralized by negative particles in it that resembled plum pudding, hence it's name....Plum Pudding.
What are ions? What are the types of ions?
An atom that gains or loses electrons. The two types are: cations) an atom that loses electrons and becomes a +ion, anions) atoms that gain electrons to become -ions.
What is the cathode ray table experiment? What is a cathode ray? Who was it conducted by?
The cathode ray experiment was an experiment that sent a stream of electrons or negatice particles across a bottle that reacted to a positive charge when placed next to it. This experiment was conducted by J.J. Thompson.
What was the paddle wheel experiment? What did it prove? Who conducted it?
The paddle wheel experiment, conducted by J.J. Thompson, proved that electrons have mass when a paddle wheel that was placed inside of a bottle made contact with the glowing stream of particles being surged through it.
Who was Robert Millikan and what did he do?
Robert was an American chemist that calculated the exact charge of an electron using his oil can experiment.
Who was he Gold Foil Experiment conducted by and what did it prove?
The Gold Foil Experiment was conducted by Lord Ernest Rutherford and proved that atoms have a small dense nucleus by shooting them through a wall of gold foil.
What are Alpha Particles?
Alpha Particles are very small positive charged particles.
What model treats electrons as a wave?
The Quantum Mechanical Model treats electrons as a wave.
What has the mass inside a nucleus?
Protons and neutrons have the mass inside an nucleus.
What are all masses based on? What's the equation?
All masses are based on carbon's mass, hydrogen 1/12*12=1
Who was Neils Bohr and what did he create?
Neils Bohr is a Danish physicist that produced the Bohr Model of the atom. The model has a positive circle in the middle of a ring charged with negative electrons.
What does AMU stand for?
Atomic Mass Units
What is the atomic mass?
The atomic mass is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
What is the atomic number?
The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus.
What is the AVERAGE atomic mass?
The average atomic mass is of all the isotopes in an element.
What is Sn+2? Is it an ion? If so, what kind? What's its atomic number? What's its mass number? How many electrons are there?
Sn+2 is an ex. of a tin cation. It's atomic # is 50 which is the number of protons. The mass number is 119-50=69 neutrons. It has 48 electrons.
Define isotope.
Isotopes are atoms of an element with the same number of protons, but different number neutrons.
What are examples of Cl isotopes?
Cl-34, Cl-35, Cl-36, Cl-37, Cl-38
What are hydrogen's three isotopes?
Protium, Deuterium, and Tritium
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does Protium have? What percentage of it makes up hydrogen?
Protium has 1 proton, ) neutrons, 1 electron, and makes up 99% of hydrogen.
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does Deuterium have? What percentage of it makes up hydrogen?
Deuterium has 1 proton, 1 neutron, and 1 electron, and makes up .99% of hydrogen.
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does Tritium have? What percentage of it makes up hydrogen?
Tritium has 1 proton, 1 neutron, 1 electron, and makes up approximately .01% of hydrogen.
Element X has 3 isotopes.
X-10 has an abundance of 20%
X-11 has an abundance of 20%
X-12 has an abundance of 60%
Calculate the average atomic mass.
10 * 20/100= 2
11 * 20/100=2.2
12 * 60/100=7.2
2+2.2+7.2=11.4 AMU
What is Avogadro's number?
6.02 * 10_23.
What is the molar mass?
The molar mass is 1 mole of any substance that's equal to its mass. Ex: 1 mole Li = 6.9g, 1 mole carbon= 12
How does one calculate the mass %? Give an example.
The formula is partial mass/total mass * 100. Ex: Find the mass % of sodium in NaCl? 23/58.5 * 100 = 39%.
What is electromagnetic radiation?
Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that has wavelike propertiel as it travels through space.
What are the the six types of waves in decreasing amount of longest to shortest?
Radiowaves, microwaves, infrared waves, ultra violet waves, x-rays, and gamma waves.
What is the order of lowest frequency to highest frequency wavse on the visible light spectrum?
Red, orange, yellow, gree, blue, indigo, violet
How are frequencies and wavelengths related?
Shorter the wavelength higher the frequency and visa-versa.
What does the lambda represent?
The lambda represents the wavelength, or the distance between two crests on a wave.
What is the amplitude?
The amplitude is the height of the wave.
What is the frequency?
The frequency is the number of wavelengths that pass a certain point in one second.
What is frequency measured in?
Frequency is measured in hertz.
What is the speed of light measured in? What is the standard number for all speed of light equations?
3.0*10_8 m/s
What represents the wavelength? What is it measured in?
The lambda represents the wavelength and is measured in meters.
Who is Max Planck and what did he state?
Max Planck was a chemist that stated energy was not continuous and that it's only found in energy bundles called quantum.
What is Plank's constant? What is the height?
E=VH, H=6.63*10_-34
Define law of conservation of mass.
The law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical or physical reactions.
Define law of multiple proportions.
If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.
Define law of definite proportions.
The fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound is called the law of definite proportions.
What is an atom?
An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties if that element.
What is a nuclide?
A nuclide is a general term for any isotope of any element.
What is a mole?
A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12.
What is the definition of Avogadro's number?
The number of particles in exactly one mole of a substance.
What is name of Homer's Simpson's favorite beer?

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