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1st semester bio


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copy deck
says that geological forces produced changes on earth in the past & predicts that those same forces will continue to produce change in the future
natural selection
the survival & reprod of organisms that are best suited to their environment
characteristics that increase the chances that an organism will survive & reprod in its environment
descent with modification
related organisms share a common ancestor
measurement [cup of water]
substances [liquid of water]
electron shells
arrangement of electrons around an atom's nucleus according to the energy they contain: less energy, closer to nucleus
atoms of the same element that differ in their # of neutrons
chemical bonds
attractions/sharing/transfer of outer shell elecrtons from one electron to another
chemical reaction
making & breaking of chem bonds
activation energy
energy needed to get chem reaction started
atom/molecule that has a pos/neg charge bc it gained/lost electrons
ionic bond
attraction b/w opp charged ions
covalent bond
2 atoms share 1 or more pairs of electrons
hydrogen bond
weak attraction b/w hydrogen atoms & oxy/nitro/fluorine atoms; holds together the strands of DNA in a double helix
solution with more H+ than OH-
solution with more OH- than H+
have same hydrogen to oxy ratio as water - 2:1
have 3-7 carbon atoms in their skeletons
several bonded glucose molecules
lipid functions
long-term storage of energy
build structural parts of cell membs
protein functions
ctructural components of cell walls
messengers & revievers of messages
amino acids
make up proteins
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxy, nitro
peptide bonds
covalent bonds formed b/w amino acids
primary structure
sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
secondary structures
the folding or twisting of a polypeptide chain; usually stabilized by hydrogen bonds
tertiary structure
globular/spherical folding of the chain of amino acids
tendency for nonpolar amino acids to avoid water, so they become buried inside folded proteins
quaternary structure
2 or more tertiary forms combined
nucleic acids
dictate the amino acid sequence of proteins
long chains of these make up nucleic acids
when nucleic acids have ribose in their nucleotides
when nucleic acids have deoxyribose which is a phosphate group & adenine/thymine/guanine/cytosine
transport proteins
embedded in the membran; help charged molecules & polar molecules pass into the cell
protiens embedded in the memb that have sugars attached
lipids linked to sugars that are in membs
pressure of a cell against its cell wall
concent of solutes is = inside & outside cell
concent of solute outside cell is higherrr [cell bursts]
concent of solute inside cell is lower [cell shrinks]
passive transport
diffusion with no energy
active transport
diffusion that needs energy from ATP bc its going against its concent gradient
facilitated transport
passage of molecules attached to carrier proteins going down their concent gradient
way to get food into a unicellular organism
removes waste
long, coiled tube with one cuplike end [glomerular capsule] that fits over a mass of capillaries [glomerulus] & another end that opens into a duct that collects urine
in glomerulus [ball of capillaries]
fluid porton of blood [includes wastes, urea, salts, ions, glucose, & amino acids] is forced into glomerular capsule
in tubule
cells of tubule wall absorbs the stuff that was filtered that the body needs & returns them to the blood
as filtered stuff moves thru tubule
cells of tubule wall remove some stuff from the blood & release it into the filtered stuff [mostly K+]
waste fluid
tube thru which urine leaves the kidneys
tube thru which urine leaves during urination
hormone secreted by adrenal gland
when potassium levels in blood are too high, it's released
stimulates more K+s being taken from the blood & put into the tubule
feedback regulation with ADH
dehydration means blood pressure drops
hypothalamus detects this & makes pituitary gland let out ADH
ADH tells cell membs of collecting ducts to let more water in
more water is giben to blood
brain detects the higher blood pressure
stops letting out ADH

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