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Chem 115


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One of two or more atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Two or more substances that are composed of the same elements in the same proportions but differ in properties because of differences in the arrangement of atoms.
Mass Number
protons and neutrons
Atomic Number
Number of protons = number of electrons
A nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus, especially a heavy nucleus such as an isotope of uranium, splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, releasing from 100 million to several hundred million electron volts of energy
A nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of huge amounts of energy.
Amount of electricity Generated by nuclear power in France
Amount of electricity Generated by nuclear power in U.S.
Advantages of Nuclear Power Production by Fission
- Minimal Air and water pollution. - Efficient use of fuel resources. - Relatively low operating cost
Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Production from Fission
production of radioactive wastes, possibility of accident producing serious human health problems, and long term storage of waste will likely have high costs
SO2 and SO3
Acid Rain
NO and NO2
Acid Rain and Ozone Depletion
Halogenated Hydrocarbons
Ozone Layer Problems
CO and CO2
Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Fossil Fuels
Smoke, Smog, and solid particles
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed; rather it changes into different forms
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can change into different forms
1st Law of Thermodynamics
The total amount of energy in the universe is constant
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
In spontaneous changes, the universe tends toward a state of greater disorder

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