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Chem: Chapters 13-14


undefined, object
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2 or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state
Kinetic Energy
the energy an object has because of its motion
Kinetic Theory
all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion
Gas Pressure
results from the force exerted from a gas per unit surface area of an object
An empty space with no particle and no pressure
Atmospheric pressure
results from the collision of atoms and molecules in air with objects
used to measure atmospheric pressure
Pascal (Pa)
The SI unit of pressure
standard atmosphere (atm)
1 atm is the pressure required to support 760 mm Hg in a mercury barometer at 25 degree C
the conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor
when such a conversion occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling
vapor pressure
a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid
boiling point
the temp at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid
normal boiling point
the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 Pa
melting point
the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid
the particles are arranged in an orderly, repeating, 3D patern called a crystal lattice
unit cell
the smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the geometric shape of the crystals
amorphous solids
lacks an orderly internal structure
a transparent fusion product of inorganic substances that have cooled to a rigid state w/o crystallizing
the change of a substance from a solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid stage
phase diagram
the relationships among the solid, liquid, or vapor states of a substance in a sealed container can be represented in a single graph
the triple point
describes the only set of conditions at which all 3 phases can exist in equilibrium with each other
boyle's law
states that for a given mass of gas at constant temperature the volume varies inadvertently with pressure
Charles's law
states that the volume of a fixed mass of gass is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant
a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
Gay-Lussac's Law
states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant
combined gas laws
describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature and volume of an enclosed gas
Ideal gas constant (r)
has a value of 8.31 (L X KPa)/ (K x mol)
Ideal gas law
partial pressure
contribution each gas in a mixture makes to the total pressure
Dalton's law of Partial Pressure
at constant volume and temperature the totaly pressure exerted by a mixture of gases equals the sum of partial pressure of the component gases.
the tendency of molecules to move towards and area of lower concentration until uniform.
when a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container
Graham's law of effusion
states that the rate of effusion of a gas is adversely proportional to the square root of the gases molar mass

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