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chem ch 5 & 10 vocab


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matter is discontinuous
Democritus Leucippus
very influential opposed atomic ideas said Democritus & Leucippus were wrong
John Dalton
first atomic theory: all matter composed of atoms (elements), all atoms of same element identical (mass & size), all atoms of different element not alike (mass & size), atoms unite in simple ratios to form compounds, atoms of same element not same (isotopes) law of multiple proportions
Antoine Lavoisier
law of conservation of mass oxygen necessary for combustion
John Proust
law of definite composition
William Crookes
worked with vacuum tubes put gas in tubes and electricity to see what would happen vacuum tubes - crooke's tube - cathode ray tube - tv cathode ray tube
negative terminal
positive terminal
Joseph J. Thomson
discovered cathode rays were actually electrons made Plum Pudding Model discovered electrons
GJ Stoney
named electron
James Chadwick
discovered neutron
discovered proton
Robert Milikan
devised "milikan's oil drop experiment" goal was to find electron mass
Ernest Rutherford
used alpha in experiment experiment called "alpha particle gold-foil scattering" shot alpha particles thru gold foil, screen covered with zinc sulfide, thot something of atom was positive charge, dense, massive, empty space- nucleus discovered nucleus proved Thomson's model incorrect Rutherford's model called "nuclear model of atom"
H. Becquerel
discovered radioactivity
Neil Bohr
created quantum mechanics: where electron is, how they behave (mathematical science, branch of physics), possibility
E. Schrodinger
model of atom called "orbital model", "wave mechanical", "quantum mechanical", "charge cloud model"
1/1837 mass of proton
law of conservation of mass
# of reacants = # of products
law of multiple proportions
atoms of two or more elements may combine in different ratios to produce more than one compound
law of definite composition
a compound always contains two or more elements in a definite proportion by mass
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
impossible to know electron's location and velocity at same time cuz electrons are too small and constantly moving
Aufbau Principle
electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first
Pauli's exclusion principle
atomic orbital contain at most two electrons, but have opposite spins
Hund's Rule
when electrons occupy orbitals of eqyal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all orbitals contain one electron with parallel spin
alpha particles
He+2 (2 protons, 2 neutron)
beta particles
high speed electron
gamma rays
high speed "light"
quantum numbers
n: principle quantum number, indicates energy level of electron. l: sublevel (azimuthal). m: orbital (magnetic). s: spin (clockwise, counterclockwise)
orbital shapes
s-type: spherical. p-type: lobed. d-type: multi-lobed. f-type: multi-lobed
location: nucleus. charge: +. relative mass: 1 AMU. actual mass: 1.673x10^-24g
location: nucleus. charge: 0. relative mass: 1 AMU. actual mass: 1.675x10^=24g
location: electron cloud. charge: -. relative mass: 1/1837 AMU. actual mass: 9.110x10^-28g
atomic mass unit 1.6606x10^-24g
lambda distance between consecutive peaks and troughs in a wave
measurement of the number of waves that pass a particular point per second
measurement of how fast a wave travels thru space
theoretically, tiny packet of energy that streams with others of its kind to produce a beam of light also what electrons give off when jumping or in their excited state
line spectrum
colored lines generated when light emitted by a gas is passed thru a spectroscope each element posseses a unique set of line spectra
small discrete increments of energy. from the theory proposed by Max Planck that energy is emitted in energy quanta rather than a continuous stream
ground state
lowest available energy level within an atom, electrons are "stable"
excited state
no room in energy level, so electrons jump to higher energy levels, "not stable", give off energy by light = "light photons"
max # of electrons in each group
1. 1 2. 3 3. varies 4. varies 5. varies 6. varies 7. varies 8. varies 9. varies 10. varies 11. varies 12. varies 13. 3 14. 4 15. 5 16. 6 17. 7 18. 8

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susanna park