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Chem 1211 Final


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physical property
readily observable
ex. color, size, luster, smell
chemical property
only observable during a chemical reaction
physical change
changes that do not result in the production of a new substance.
ex. melt ice...still water
chemical change
changes that result in production of another substance.
ex. burning a log in the fireplace
density =
mass / volume
amount of heat (q)
m x c x change in T
m= mass
c= specific heat
how to find simplest/empirical formula:
assume 100 grams
change % to grams
divide by molar mass/atomic weight
find smallest and divide each answer by it
that's how many of each element you have
how to find molecular formula:
find emirical/simpliest formula
calculate molar mass/atomic weight of that
divide by weight given in problem
% yield =
actual / theoretical x 100%
actual yield is what you ACTUALLY get
theoretical yield is what you SHOULD get
1 mL =
1 cm^3
specific gravity =
density (substance) / density (water)
-density of water = 1.oo g
C (specific heat) of water =
4.184 J
kelvin --> centigrade
centigreade --> kelvin
K = C + 273
C = K - 273
Fahrenheit --> centigrade
centigrade --> fahrenheit
F = 1.8 x C +32
C = F -32 / 1.8
same number of protons, different number of neutrons
% composition =
mass of an individual element in a compound / total mass of the compound x 100%
% purity =
mass of pure substance / mass of sample x 100%
limiting reagent:
given two masses (or moles) of reactant
determine mass of reactant possible from each reactant.
smaller number is teh maximum mass of product possible (and your limiting reagent)
% solute =
mass of solute / mass solution x 100%
molarity =
moles / L
dilution formula:
(m1)(v1) = (m2)(v2)
good conductors of electricity and heat
metallic gray or "silvery" in color
typically solid at room temp.
physical prooperties of metals
poor electrical conductors
poor conductors of heat; actually, insulators
brittle solids
physical properties of nonmetals
outer shell contain few electrons (< 3)
form cations by losing electrons
form ionic compounds with nonmetals
solid state characterized by metallic bonding
chemical properties of metals
outer shell contain 4 or more electrons
form anion by gaining electrons
form ionic compound with metals and covalent commpounds with other nonmetls
form covalently bonded molecules; noble gases are monatomic
chemical properties of nonmetals
stonge electrolytes dissociate or ionize ___________ in water
the oxidation number of any free, uncombined element is _______
3 ways to write reactions:
molecular formula
total ionic formula
net ionic formula
molecular formula shows...
all reactants and products in molecular or ion form
total ionic equation shows...
the ions and molecules as they exist in solution
net ionic equation shows...
ions that participate in reaction and removes spectator ions
naming binary compounds
name cation first (normal name)
anion named second (with -ide)
~more than one oxidation state, use roman numerals between cation and anion
naming psudobinary ionic compounds:
contains one of the following:
OH- (hyroxides)
CN- (cyanide)
NH4+ (ammonium)
naming binary acids:
hydrogen + nonmetal
for gasaeous: hydrogen (stem)ide
for acidic (aq): hyrdro(stem)ic acid
naming binary covalent compounds:
two or more nonmetals other than hydrogen.
must use prefix to specify number of atoms.
name more metallic element first (normal name)
name less metallic element second (and -ide) to stem
naming ternary acids:
3 elements: H, O, and a nonmetal
ate ions --> ic acids
ite ions --> ous acids
wavelength =
h /mv
h = planks constant = 6.626 x 10^-34 j/s/
principle quantum number:
(n) main energy level that the electron ocucpies (n = 1,2,3,4,...)
angular momentum quantum number:
(l) designates teh sublevel (which correlates to the pecific shape of the orbital) (l = 0,1,2,3...(n-1))
magnetic quantum number:
(ml) designates teh specific orbital within a subshell that the electron occupies (ml = -1 --> +1)
spin quantum number:
(ms) refers to the spin of an electron and teh orientation of teh magnetic field produced by this spin (ms = +/- 1/2)
oxidation-reduction ("redox") reaction:
loss of electrons is oxidation
gain of electrons is reduction
LEO the lion says GER
oxidized species is reducing agent
reduced species is oxidizing agent
combination reaction:
occur when two or more substances combine to form a compound
decomposition reaction:
occurs when one compound decomposes to form:
two elements
one or more elements and one or more compounds
two or more compounds
displacement reaction:
occur when one element displaces another element from a compound.
remember activity series.
activity series:
Li, K, Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, F, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Ag, Hg, Pt, Au
metahesis ("double-displacement") reaction
occurs when 2 ionic aqueous solutions are mixed and the ions swith partners
atomic weight =
weighted average of the masses of its stable isotopes:
(weight)(%) + (weight)(%) + ...
1 A =
1 x 10^-10 m
c (speed of teh propagation of the wave) =
wavelength x velocity
if in visible spectrum...c =
3.00 x 10^8 m/s
energy (e) =
hv OR hc/wavlength
1/wavelength =
r(1/n1^2 - 1/n2^2)
r =
1.097 x 10^7 m^-1
atomic radii:
icreases right to left
increases top to bottom
ionization energy:
increases left to right
increases bottom to top
electron affinity:
increases left to rigth
increases bottom to top
increases left to right
increases top to bottom
louis dot formulas of atoms:
each "dot" represents one valence electron
each of the four sides of the atoms symbol represents on orbital
still obey hunds rule
bonding pairs:
shared pairs
electrons involved in chemical bond
unshared pairs:
lone pair
electrons associated with only one atom in the molecule
rules for drawing lewis structures:
determine total number of valence electrons
decide on an arrangement of atoms
most electronegative in
single vs. multiple.
...single in middle
connect al atoms with single
fill in octect for all atoms
count to make sure all atoms
have a complete octet and the
total number of electrons is
exceptions to octet rule:
Br, B, S, P, As
n-a=s rule:
n=number of electrons needed to achieve a noble gas configuration (8)
a=number of available electrons in valence shells of the atoms
s=number of electorns shared in bonds
a-s=number of electrons in unshared, lone pairs
formual charge =
group # - (# of bonds + # of unshared electrons)
polar covalent bonds
covalent bonds in which the electrons are not shared equally
nonpolar covalent bonds:
covalent bonds in which teh electrons are shared equally
when counting regions of high electron density...
focus on central atom
when counting region of high electron desnity (# of groups) ...
single bond = 1 group
double bond = 1 group
triple bond = 1 group
lone pair = 1 group
electronic geometry:
total number of electron groups around central atom
molecular geometry:
takes into account how many electron groups are bonds and how many are lone paris
2 electron groups =
linear (180)
3 electron groups =
trigonal planar (120)
4 electron groups =
tetrahedral (109.5)
5 electron groups =
trigonal bipyramidal (90, 120)
6 electron groups =
octahedral (90)
6 bonding groups
0 lone pairs
5 bonding groups
1 lone pair
square pyramidal
4 bonding groups
2 lone pairs
square planar
trigonal bipyramidal:
5 bonding groups
0 lone pairs
trigonal bipyramidal
trigonal bipyramidal:
4 bonding groups
1 lone pair
trigonal bipyramidal:
3 bonding groups
2 lone pairs
trigonal bipyramidal:
2 bonding groups
3 lone pairs
4 bonding groups
0 lone pairs
3 bonding groups
1 lone pair
trigonal pyramidal
2 bonding grops
2 lone pairs
trigonal planar:
3 bonding groups
0 lone pairs
trigonal planar
trigonal planar:
2 bonding groups
1 lone pair
trigonal planar:
1 bonding group
2 lone pairs
if the electronic geometry is linear...the hybridization is
if the electronic geometry is trigonal planar, the hybridization is...
if the electronic geometry is tetrahedral, the hybridization is...
if the electronic geometry is trigonal bypriamidal, the hybridization is...
if the electronic geometry is octahedral, the hybridization is...
sigma and pi bonds:
every single bond contains...
one sigma bond
simga and pi bonds:
every double bond contains...
one sigma and one pi bond
sigma and pi bonds:
every triple bond contains...
one sigma and two pi bonds
arrhenius acid:
coontain hydrogen and produce H+ in aqueous soltuioins
arrhenius base:
contain hydroxly groups and produce OH- in aqueous solutions
H+ is actually
H3O [H(H2O)n]
bronsted lowry acid:
donate protons
bronsted lowry base:
accept protons
in the bronsted lowry theory, water is a
base OR acid
conjugate acid:
add H and +
conjugate base:
remove H and add -
lewis acids
accept protons
lewis bases
donate protons
what is the strongest acid that can exist in aqueous solution?
the hydronium ion
what is the leveling effect?
all acids stonger than the hydronium ion react completely with water to produce the hydronium ion and their conjugate base.
also applies to strong bases
for ternary acids having the same central atom, the highest oxidation state of teh central atom is usually strongest/weakest acid
combustion means...
reacts with O2
choose acid/base:
have sour taste
change colors of indicatiors
turn cabbage juice red
turn blue litmus red
cause phenolphthalein clear
react with metal oxides and
metal hydroxides to from
salts and waters
choose acid/base
bitter taste
slipper feeling
change color of indicators
cabbage juice green
red litmus blue
react with acids to form salts
(and usually water)
conduct electricity as aqueous

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