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What are the major groups of bodily membranes?
Epithelial and Connective Tissue
What are the main categories of epithelial membranes?
What characterizes mucous membranes?
Usually line body cavities that open to exterior (nose/mouth/etc)
Composed of Epithelium resting on a lamina propia, a loose connective tissue membrane
Functions as a Defense Mech; Prevents drying; Lubricates GI tract
Serous Membrane
Lines body cavity closed to exterior and covers organs w/in cavities
Serous Membranes: Layers
Parietal and Pleural
Serous Membranes: Describe Layers relation to each other
Think of a fist in a balloon--> balloon to fist is visceral and outer wall of balloon is parietal. visceral covers and attaches organs to cavity
Serous: Characteristics and Locations
Both layers secrete watery, lubricating fluid, serous fluid.
Found in peritoneum (abd cavity); Pleura (lungs)l pericardium (heart)
What is the major type of connective tissue membrane? What is its composition?
Synovial Membrane. Made of fibrous connective tissue; does _not_ contain epithlial cells
Synovial Membrane:Location
Found: Lining cavity of freely moving joint (articular) and also surrounds tendons or forms sacs (bursa)
Synovial Membrane: Function
Secrete synovial fluid that lubricates and provides nutrients; bursa cushions and lubricates
What are accessory sturctures for the cutaneous membrane?
Sweat glands; oil glands; hairs; nails; sensory structures
Skin or covering
Basic Skin Functions
(1) protection-->6
(2) Regulate Body Temp->sweat
(3) Excretion->Urea
(4) Synth Vitamin D
(5) Blood Reservoir
Protective Functions of Skin
(1) Mechanical Damage-> Sense Pressure
(2) Chem Damage-> Pain Recep
(3) Bacterial-> Precent invasion/infection
(4) UV-> Melanocytes
(5) Thermal-> hot/cold dam
(6) Desiccation
Structure of Skin: Major layers.
Epidermis; Dermis; Subcutaneous
Epidermis: Characteristics
Composed of stratified squamous epithelium [keratinizes]
4 major cell types
4-5 layers
Dermis: Characteristics
Composed of dense fibrous connective tissue
2 layers
Subcutaneous: Characteristic
Composed of areolar tissue containing fat cells; anchors skin to underlying organs; shock absorber and insulator
Epidermis: Major Cell Types
Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkel cells
Epidermis: Major Cell Types: Function
Keratin toughens/waterproofs; Melanin provides pigment snd absorbs UV; Lagerhans interact with WBC [damaged by UV]; Merkel sense touch
Epidermis: Layers
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale
Stratum Basale
Deepest Cell Layer;
Continuous cell division;
Single cell layer contains all 4 cells of epidermis
Stratum Spinosum
8-10 tightly packed cell layers; mainly keratinocytes, some melano; spine-like projections anchor cells
Stratum Granulosum
3-5 cell layers: flatted Keratino
Granules develop in keratinocytes->lipid-rich sealant; transition from metabolically active to dead area
Stratum Lucidum
3-5 cell layers: clear/flat/dead
Not always present (on palms or soles of feet)
Stratum Corneum
20-30 cell layers
Flat & dead-->rub/flake away
Greatest amount of keratin-> fll keratinization. Outermost layer
Skin Coloration
Comes from Melanin (can be yellow; brown; black)
Priduce Melanin; same number in all races (diff in melan production); Exposure to UV inc production; Protects against UV damage from the sun; excess UV damages skin "leathery"; depress immune sys; skin cancer (?)
Skin coloration depends on
Amount/Type of Melanin; Amount of carotene in Stratum Corneum and subcutaneous tissue; Amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin
Composed of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers; 2 layers: Papillary and Reticular
Collagen Fiber
Found throughout Dermis
Responsible for the toughness of the dermis
Attracts/Binds H20->skin hydration
Elastic Fiber
Provides elasticity
From loss of collagen and elastic fibers-> skin begins to sag/wrinkle
Papillary Layer
Contacts the Stratum Basale
Contains the Dermal Papillae
Contains Meissner's Corpuscles
Dermal Papillae
*Fingerlike Projections indenting into epidermis
*Increase surface area of papiallary layer (inc area for vascular supply)
*Ridges cause fingerprints
Meissner's Corpuscles
sensitive to light touch
Reticular Layer
*Deepest layer of skin
*Composed of elastin and Collagen
Reticular Layer: How attached?
Bound to the underlaying organs, bones, muscles via the superficial fascia
Reticular Layer: Contains
Blood vessels; Glands (sweat/oil); Pacinian Corpuscles (deep pressure)

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