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Chem Lab Vocab


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The closeness of a measurement to the true value of the quantity that is measured.
Actual Yield
The amount of product actually obtained in a reaction.
An ion with a negative charge.
The smallest piece of an element that can enter into chemical combinations.
Avogadro's Number
The number of 12C atoms in exactly 12g of 12C. It equals 6.022x10^23.
Bronsted Acid
A substance capable of donating a proton.
Bronsted Base
A substance capable of accepting a proton.
Buffer Solution
A solution that has the ability to resist small changes in pH upon the addition of small amounts of either acid or base.
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed.
An ion with a net positive charge.
Chemical Reaction
Processes in which one or more substances are converted into other substances.
Chemical Kinetics
The area of chemistry concerned with the speeds or rates at which chemical reactions occur.
A substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions.
Covalent Bond
A bond in which two electrons are shared by two atoms.
The mass of a substance divided by its volume.
The gradual mixing of one substance with another due to random molecular motion.
A procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution.
A substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity.
Full Ionic Equation
A reaction equation which shows all soluble compounds in their ionic forms.
The transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that are at different temperatures.
Hess's Law
When reactants are converted to products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps.
Hydrogen Bonding
A special type of dipole-dipole interaction between molecules containing hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine.
Inorganic Compounds
Compounds other than organic compounds.
A charged species.
Ionic Compound
A chemical compound composed of cations and anions combined so that the total positive and negative changes are equal.
The ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical compound.
A substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.
Endothermic Processes
Processes that absorb heat from the surroundings.
The capacity to do work or to produce change.
A biological catalyst.
A state in which there are no observable changes as time goes by.
Excess Reagents
One or more reactants present in quantities greater than those needed to react with quantity of the limiting reagent.
Exothermic Processes
Processes that give off heat to the surroundings.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.
Ionic Bonding
The electrostatic forces that holds ions together in an ionic compound.
Ionization Energy
The minimum energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom in its ground state.
Atoms having the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
Unit of energy given by newtons-meters
Kinetic energy
Energy available because of the motion of an object.
Le Chatelier's principle
If an external stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system will adjust itself in such a way as to partially offset the stress.
Limiting Reagent
The reactant used up first in the reaction.
Macroscopic Properties
Properties that can be measured directly.
Elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity and have the tendency to form positive ions in ionic compounds.
A combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their identity.
Molar Mass
The mass of one mole of atoms, molecules, or other particles.
The number of moles of solute in one liter of solution.
A collection of Avogadro's number of objects.
Molecular Compound
A compound consisting of atoms that are covalently bonded.
Molecular equation
A reaction equation which shows the complete chemical formulas of all reactants and products.
A neutral aggregate of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Net Ionic Equation
A reaction equation in which all the spectator ions are removed leaving only the ions and molecules directly involved in the reaction.
A substance that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution that is not electrically conducting.
Elements that are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity and have the tendency to gain electrons and form negative ions.
Nonpolar bond
A covalent bond in which the electrons are equally shared by two atoms so there are no positive and negative ends.
Nonpolar Molecule
A molecule that does not possess a dipole moment.
Octet Rule
An atom other than hydrogen tends to form bonds until it is surrounded by eight valence electrons.
Organic Chemistry
The branch of chemistry that deals with carbon compounds.
Oxidation Number
The number of charges an atom would have in a molecule if electrons were transferred completely in the direction of the atoms with the higher electronegativity.
Oxidation Reaction
The half-reaction that involves the loss of electrons.
Oxidizing agent
A substance that can accept electrons from another substance or increase the oxidation number in another substance.
Percent Yield
The ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield, multiplied by 100%.
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
A particle of light.
Physical Property
Any property of a substance that can be observed without transforming the substance into some other substance.
Polar Bond
A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are more strongly attracted by one of the bonding atoms creating partial positive and negative ends.
Polar molecule
A molecule that possesses a dipole moment.
Potential Energy
Energy available by virtue of an object's position.
An insoluble solid that separates from the solution
The closeness of agreement of two or more measurement of the same quantity.
Force applied per unit area.
Redox Reaction
A reaction in which there is either a transfer of electrons or a change in the oxidation numbers of the substances taking part in the reaction.
Reduction Reaction
The half-reaction that involves the gain of electrons.
An ionic compound made up of a cation and an anion.
Saturated Solution
At a given temperature, the solution that results when the maximum amount of a substance dissolves in a solvent.
Significant Figures
The number of meaningful digits in a measure or calculated quantity.
The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature.
The substance present in smaller amount in a solution.
A homogenous mixture of two or more substances.
The substance present in larger amount in a solution.
Specific Heat
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of the substance by one degree celsius.
Spectator Ions
Ions that are not involved in the overall reaction.
Theoretical Yield
The amount of product predicted by the balanced equation when all of the limiting reagent has reacted.
The study of heat changes in chemical reactions.
The scientific study of the interconversion of heat and other forms of energy.
The gradual addition of a solution of accurately known concentration to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete.

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