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Chem Honors Chapter 22


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protons and nuetrons
an atom- identified by the number of protons and nuetrons in nucleus
mass defect
The difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons
nuclear binding energy
nrg released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons
binding energy per nucleon
Band of stability
the stable nuclei cluster over a range of neutron-proton ratios
nuclear shell model
nucleons exist in different energy levels, or shells, in the nucleus
magic numbers
nuclear reaction
a reaction that affects the nucleus of the atom
a change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons
radioactive decay
the spontaneous disintegrationof a nucleus into a slightly lighter and more stable nucleus, accompanied by emission of pasrticles, emr, or both
nuclear radiation
particles or electromagnetic radiation emmitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay
radioactive nuclide
an unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay
alpha particle
2 protons and neutrons embound together and immited from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
beta particle
an electron emmited from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
a particle that has the same mass as an electron, but has a positive charge, and is emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
electron capture
an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of its own atom
gamma rays
high-energy electromagnetic waves emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited state toa ground energy state
time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay
decay series
a series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached.
parent nuclide
the haviest nuclide of each decay series
daughter nuclides
nuclides produced by the decay of the parent nuclides
artifical transmutations
bombardment of stable nuclei with charged and uncharged particles
transuranium elements
elements with more than 92 protons in nuclei
a unit used to measure radiation, equal to the amount of radiation that produces 2*10^9 ion pairs when it passes through 1 cm^3 of dry air
roentgen equivalent, man, quantity of ionizing radiation that does as much damage to human tissue as done by 1 roetgen of high-voltage X rays
film badges
use exposure of film to measure the approximate radiation exposure of people working with radiation
geiger müller counters
are instruments that detect radiation by counting electric pulses carried by gas ionized by radiation
absorb ionizing radiation and emit visible light
scintillation counters
instruments tath convert scintillating light into an electric signal for detecting radiation
radioactive dating
process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amt of certain radioactive nuclides present
radioactive tracers
radioactive atoms that are incorporated into substances so that movement of the substances can be followed by radiation deterctors
nuclear fission
a very heavy nucleus splits into more stable nuclei of intermediate mass
chain reaction
a reaction in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction
critical mass
min amount of nuclide that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction
nuclear reactors
devices that use controlled'fission chain reactions to produce energy or radioactive nuclides
nuclear power plants
use heat from nuclear reactiors to produce electrical nergy
radiation'absorbing material used to decrease radiation exposure from nuclear reactors, especially gama rays
control rods
neutron'absorbing rods that help control the reaction by limiting the number of free neutrons
slow down the fast neutrons produced by fission
nuclear fusion
light'mass nuclei combine to form a heavier, more stable nucleus

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