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SW502

Terms

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Dunlap: Principles of war are relevant because
they serve as guideposts from military and civilian leaders.
Dunlap: Principles of war The principles suggest ways to
strengthen friendly forces and indicate vulnerabilities in enemy operations.
Reasonable Hope of Success:
Are you likely to get what you want by going to war.
Military victories only provide
opportunities for the victors.
Informed Insight:
To make sense of information gathering; fusing information; Authenticating will be the critical 21st Century feature.
Strategic Anchoring:
Performing every action in a strategic context. The smallest actions can have high impact consequences. Each has latent strategic implications; some of profound importance.
1 of 8 of Gray's Points to consider how war has changed post cold war: Interstate war
down but far from out - This is chiefly because the US is a hyperpower.
Public Declaration:
By doing this, there is usually a requirement for delivery of an ultimatum before initiation of hostilities.
Few wars are decided on the battlefield, most are decided at the
peace table
Use of attrition
Relies on communication to keep it going.
The UN have come to share a common view that both national and collective security depend in part on
stabilizing and strengthening fragile states.
Describe the just conduct during war (jus in bello) tradition
Warfighters should be concerned about applying these principles because it can have a grave effect on both domestic and international opinion with respect to "justness" of the war, as well as have an overall impact on ability to carry the war to the desired ends..
The US Military's role in stability operations should be to
provide the populace with security and restore essential services with the long-term goal of developing indigenous capacity for securing essential services, a viable economy, rule of law, democratic institutions and a robust civil society.
Use of attrition
Not just an army had to be crushed, but the will of the enemy too.
Unity of Effect:
Leveraging that which is beyond C2 (sometimes the uncontrollable like weather). It reinterprets economy of force and even mass and maneuver by accentuating results. May rely on skills of persuasion at times.
Use of attrition
Either side could be worn down.
Use of attrition
Protracted event. Large toll on both sides.
1 of 8 of Gray's Points to consider how war has changed post cold war: The unchanging nature of war
All wars are of the same nature
Strategy of Annihilation
Shorter duration. Many times these types of victories do not lead to lasting peace.
Proportionality:
The common sense requirement that the damage done in the war should be worth it. The moral point of just war is to restrain war.
Military's role in postwar stability operations
think more in terms of interagency jointness rather than just improved coordination.
Engagement Dominance:
The concept calls for striking an opponent by outranging, outgunning or even outwitting them through deception or surprise. This also requires employing weaponry at the right time.
Strategy of Annihilation
The destruction of the enemy's capacity to defend himself by destroying his armed forces on the battlefield.
Use of attrition
to wear down his will to resist.
Dunlap: Principles of war They aid in the
conduct of war and assist in organizing, training and equipping for war.
Define Total War
War intended to overthrow the adversary and destroy his political independence.
What are the focus on stability operations
Security, initial humanitarian assistance, limited governance, restoration of essential public services and other reconstruction assistance
Examples of Limited War
Soviet Union in WWII, Japan 1942-45, Revolutionary War
According to Gray, Trend-spotting and analysis is not a very helpful guide to the future...
The strategic future is driven by consequences of the trends we see, trends which interact and can trigger non-linear developments.
Just Intent:
This requirement serves to keep the war aims limited and within the context of the just cause used to authorize the war.
1 of 8 of Gray's Points to consider how war has changed post cold war: Religiously motivated, catastrophic terrorism
Will be brought in check by fellow muslims.
Strategy of Annihilation
Disarms the adversary leaving him at the mercy of the victor.
Describe the US understanding of nation (or state) building
The creation of new government institutions and strengthening of existing ones.
Define Limited War
War intended to achieve a precise objective, usually territorial (i.e. Falklands, Liberation of Kuwait). This could be sheer survival (i.e. Soviet Union in WWII). The limited object may require "total" commitment.
1 of 8 of Gray's Points to consider how war has changed post cold war: Two transformations?
Military transformation and wars cultural context?
Since 9/11 there has been more of a focus on
enforcement (security) capacity in order to prevent instability.
1 of 8 of Gray's Points to consider how war has changed post cold war: Where is the balance of power?
America's guardianship role, its global sheriff role rests solely on it unbalanced power.
The 8 modernized principles of war:
perceived worthiness, informed insight, strategic anchoring, durability, engagement dominance, unity of effect, adaptability, culminating power
The role of the UN in post conflict reconstruction is to
provide peacekeeping forces for security and then pull together post conflict expertise in a more coherent manner and allow the Security Council to focus on the early transition period.
The 7 criteria for going to war are:
just cause, legitimate authority, public declaration, just intent, proportionality, last resort, reasonable hope of success
According to Gray, Surprises happen. Some are agreeable, while some are not.
It is unlikely that we will prove any more farseeing than were or predecessors. Accurate strategic crystal ball reading has been anything but impressive. You can't rely on past to tell future.
The US should work with the UN to respond to post-conflict in a
multi-national manner rather than unilaterally whenever possible.
Discrimination:
Refers to distinguishing between groups or people or things on the basis of some characteristic that distinguishes one group from another. The relevant characteristic upon which just war requires us to discriminate is combatant status. Only the combatants are legitimate objects of deliberate attack. This is very difficult in war when the combatants blend in with the civilin population. What is not acceptable is the deliberate targeting of civilians, their use as human shields or the use of indiscriminate warfare on populations.
1 of 8 of Gray's Points to consider how war has changed post cold war: Third rate enemies
These are our typical warring partners
According to Howard, when are wars most likely to be decisive? the defeated power must be deprived
of all sources of outside support in reversing the military verdict
Three causes of war
Interest (limited objectives), Fear (Fuels total war), Honor (Passion of the people)
According to Gray, War should not be
approached in ways that would divorce it from its political, social and cultural contexts.
1 of 8 of Gray's Points to consider how war has changed post cold war: "New" and not so new Wars
War is not changing its character. Wars of ethnic and religious strife have always been a basis for war.
Use of attrition
Persuades the enemy that victory is not impossible, only obtainable at an unacceptable price.
According to Howard, when are wars most likely to be decisive? Operational victories must be gained so convincing that the
adversary is either disarmed altogether or made to realize that the cost of continuing the conflict will be prohibitively high.
The UN does not refer to it as nation building. Instead they refer to these efforts as
"peace operation."
According to Howard, when are wars most likely to be decisive? Decisive type wars tend to maintain the status quo
Any solution of a war must take into account Interests, Fear and Honor of the defeated people or it will not decide anything for very long.
According to Howard, when are wars most likely to be decisive? A government must be found in the defeated country that is
able and willing to take responsibility for enforcing the peace terms on its compatriots.
According to Gray, Defense establishments are apt to
develop impressive military solutions to problems that they prefer to solve, rather than those that a cunning or lucky foe might pose. We don't change easily.
The leading driver toward and in war is
political.
Proportionality:
Attacks during war should be proportionate to the military value of the target. Judgement is highly contextual here and depends on many dimensions of practical military reality.
Describe the evolution of the Just War:
It evolved because most cultures of antiquity attempted to place some restraints on war. All recognized that there are some causes of war which are justifiable and others are not. All recognized that some persons are legitimate objects of attack in war (combatants) and others are not (non-combatants). Additionally there were times, seasons and religious festivals during which warfare would be morally wrong.
Cook's "just war" theory is an attempt to
conduct warfare within moral limits.
According to Gray, is war changing
No, but the character of war is.
Examples of Total War
Hitler in WWII went from limited to total, England and France in WWII, Belgium in WWI, Poland in WWII
Last Resort:
That everything realistically conceivable has been done before going to war. Diplomatic solutions are preferred to military ones.
Nation building includes providing:
1) Security, 2) Justice and Reconciliation, 3) Social and Economic wellbeing, 4) Governance and participation. The best chance of success is through joint efforts
What purpose does Cook's just war theory serve?
an organized schema for determining if a particular conflict is just. It provides guidelines to determine if justification truly is as it appears.
Adaptability:
Applying ones strengths against an opponents weakness. Adapting to warfighting means and methods. It presupposes flexibility, but does not mandate simplicity. The aim is to produce culminating power.
Legitimate Authority:
The war is just if the legitimate authorities within the state move forward with war. Because this usually takes political dialogue, it is seldom a "knee jerk" reaction.
While the military is essential to postwar missions, there needs to be a
coherent strategy that spans DOS, USAID and other civilian agencies and capacities.
The goal of nation/state building is
not to impose common identities on deeply divided peoples, but to organize states that administer their territories and allow people to live together despite their differences.
Just Cause
The baseline standard in modern just war is aggression. Classically this means that borders have been crossed. A direct attack on territorial integrity.
War is about
the peace that will follow. Over time all trends decline and eventually expire.
Limited and Total objectives of war
overlap.
1 of 8 of Gray's Points to consider how war has changed post cold war: The strategic potency of a transforming military will be disappointing
While the military is changing, it does not mean it is definitively better because of it.
Culminating Power:
It answers the question what type and measure of military (or other) power is required to attain satisfactory closure at a given level of conflict. Culminating power encompasses elements of traditional principles of war like offensive, mass, maneuver and economy of force without explicitly requiring any of them.
Perceived Worthiness:
War is worth the sacrifice; worth freedom. It goes to the fundamental mindset of people.
Durability:
It depends on logistics; solving vexing logistical issues intrinsic to modern warfare will reap a huge return.
Strategy of Annihilation
Result from "decisive" victory on the battlefield.

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