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VOTING AND ELECTIONS CH. 3

Terms

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AUSTRALIAN BALLOT
a ballot printed by the governmetn (as opposed to the politcal parties) that allows people to vote in secret
CHAD
the small pieces of paper produced in punching data cards, such as punch-card ballots
CLOSED PRIMARY
a type of primary where a voter only can participate in the prmary for the party of which they are a member
CROSSOVER VOTING
when members of one political party vote in the other party's primary to influence the nominee that is selected
DIRECT PRIMARY
a method of selecting the nominees from a political party where party members selecte the candidates that represent them in the general election
INDEPENDENT EXPENDITURES
money that individuals and organizations spend to promote a candidate without working or communicating directly with the candidate's campaign organization
NEGATIVE CAMPAIGNING
a strategy used in politcal campaigns in which candidates attack opponents' issue positions or character
OFFICE BLOCK BALLOT
a type of ballot used in general elections where the candidates are listed under the office that they seek. its purpose is to de-emphasize the politcal parties of the candidates
OPEN PRIMARY
a type of party primary where voters can choose on election day in which primary they will participate
PARTICIPATION PARADOX
the fact that individuals vote even though their votes rarely influence the result of an election
PARTY-COLUMN BALLOT
a type of ballot used in a general election where all of the candidates from each party are listed in parallel columns
PLURALITY VOTE
an election rule in which the candidate with the most votes wins regardless of whether it is a majority
POLITICAL CULTURE
the political values and beliefs that are dominant in a nation or state
RUNOFF PRIMARY
a second primary election that pits the two top vote-getters from the first primary, where the winner in that primary did not receive a majority. the runoff primary is used in states such as TX that have a majority election rule in party primaries
SOFT MONEY
money spent by political parties on behalf of political candidates, especially for the purpose of increasing voter registration and turnout

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