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Interpersonal Communication Exam 1


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Interpersonal Communication
The verbal and nonverbal interaction between at-least two people.
Dyad (or Dyadic communication)
two-person communication
Communication occurs in and reflects a relationship between multiple people
interpersonal continuum
How you arrange relationships on a range between "Impersonal" and "Interpersonal" status
Little self-disclosure and emotional content in the communication
Much self-disclosure and personal content in the communication
Communication in real-time (IM, in-person, phone)
Communication that doesn't take place in real time.
says IPC is a process with interdependent elements
5 purposes of IPC
Learn, Relate, Influence, Play, Help
IPC Purpose: Learn?
Enables you to understand the external world.
IPC Purpose: Relate?
Helps your relate - communicate love/friendship
IPC Purpose: Influence?
Influence attitudes and behaviors. Some believes all communication is persuasive
IPC Purpose: Play?
Discuss fun activities
IPC Purpose: Help?
To share helpful knowledge and advice
A study of the ways computer technology and computer-mediated communications (CMC) serve to influence people through IPC
Messages that can be thought to have more than one meaning or words interpreted differently
Reasons for ambiguity
1. All relationships hold uncertainty
2. Culture
3. Context
4. Slang
5. Sarcasm

Symmetrical relationship
two people copy each others behavior
Complementary relationship
Two people engage in different behaviors in ways that support each other.
anything that distorts a message in communication
Physical noise
interference that externally interrupting both the speaker and listener (loud music)
Physiological noise
Barriers between sender and receiver - bad vision, hearing loss, articulation issues, memory problems
Psychological noise
mental interference - conflicting ideologies, beliefs, wandering thoughts, biases, prejudices
Semantic noise
different meaning systems between the speaker and listener. Different languages, complex jargon, ambiguous terms
Context Dimension: Physical
concrete environment in which communication takes place
Context Dimension: Temporal Dimension
Time of day, moment in history, where a message fits into a sequence of events
Context Dimension: Social-Psychological Dimension
Relationships among the participants
Context Dimension: Cultural Dimension
cultural beliefs and customs
Content/Relational Meaning
The exact content of a message doesn't always define how a certain relationship defines it
Messages divided into sequences of stimuli and responses
Inevitable communication
Many instances your communicating without realizing it - you constantly communicate in many ways
Irreversible communication
Cannot take back what you've already said, however you can work with it
everything in communication is constantly changing
beliefs and lifestyle of a certain group of people
learning the rules and norms of a culture different from your native culture
Learning about the culture your born in
Intercultural communication
commutation between different cultures
cultural relativism
all cultures are different, but no culture is superior to the other
Cultural evolution
cultures evolve just like life
Reasons for Relevance of Culture
1. Demographic changes
2. Increased sensitivity to cultural differences
3. Economic interdependency
4. Advances in Comm Technology
5. What often works in one culture wont work in another

Hofstede's study
found there are cultural groupings that affect the behavior of people in them
Power Distance
How power is shared in a culture
High-power-Distance Culture
Power is in the hands of few, with great distance between the power of leaders/elite and common man
Low-Power-Distance Culture
Power is more evenly distributed
Masculine Cultures
emphasize success and train their people to be assertive and competative
Feminine Cultures
emphasize the quality of life and train their people to be modest and form close IPCs
High ambiguity tolerance
don't feel threatened by unknown situations, uncertainty
Low-ambiguity tolerance
people who do a lot to avoid uncertainty
members of a group are responsible for the entire group
members of a group are responsible for themselves and immediate family/friends
US Ranking in regards to Ambiguity Tolerance, Individualism, Masculinity, Low Context
Ambiguity Tolerance: #11, Individualism: #50, Masculinity: #36, Low Context: #3
High Context
much information is context to the people talking
Low Context
Info is directly stated with little regard to context
Problem with: Korean Airlines & Power Distance
Problem was a high power distance made it near impossible for lower ranking employees to intervene in a situation with the leaders and help with a serious problem
How to improve intercultural communication competence?
1. Educate Yourself of the culture
2. Reduce uncertainty
3. Recognize Differences
4. Confront Stereotypes
5. Adjust your Communication
6. Reduce Ethnocentrism

Superficial beliefs about certain people or groups
Tendency to think your cultural beliefs are superior to others
4 Stages of Culture Shock
1. The Honeymoon - fascination with other culture
Stages of Culture Shock
1. Honeymoon - fascination with other culture
2. Crisis - Frustration and Fear created by differences between your culture and a new culture
3. Recovery - Gain skills to cope with new culture
4. Adjustment - Adjustment and enjoyment of new culture

an image of who you are
Social comparison
Comparing yourself to others to develop social concept
Cultural Teachings
Your birth culture's beliefs and ideas that test your self concept
Self Evaluation
you react to your own behavior to develop self concept
Self Awareness
The extent which you know yourself
how valuable you think you are
Johari Window
Self-Awareness: Your Four Selves model
List The Four Selves (Johari Window)

Describe for each if they are known/not known to others & yourself

Open Self : Known to Others & Self
Blind Self: Known to Others & Not Known to Self
Hidden Self: Not Known to Others & Known to Self
Unknown Self: Not known to others & Not known to self

Open Self
Info about you that you and others known
Blind Self
Info about you that you don't know, but others know
Hidden Self
Info about you that you know but others don't know
Unknown Self
Info about you that neither you nor others know
How to grow self-awareness (5 ways)
1. Ask yourself about yourself
2. Listen to others
3. Seek info about yourself
4. See your different selves
5. Increase your open self

How to increase your self-esteem
(5 ways)
1. Attack Self-Destructive Beliefs
2. Seek Out Nourishing People
3. Work on Projects that Result in Success
4. Remind yourself of Your Successes
5. Secure Affirmation (positive statements about yourself)

How you become aware of things through your senses: sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing
5 Stages of Perception
1. You sense the stimuli
2. Your organize the stimuli
3. Your analyze the stimuli
4. You remember the stimuli
5. Your retrieve the memory of the stimuli

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
a prediction that comes true because you act as if it is true
Implicit personality theory
a system of rules that tells you which characteristics of a person go where. Follows a pattern. Smart, pretty, and (Witty/Boring) - Implicit makes you more likely to say Witty
Halo effect
Implicit personality theory - good things go with good people
Reverse Halo Effect
Implicit Personality Theory - bad things go with bad people
Perceptual accentuation
you see what you expect or want to see
Primary Recency
What comes first exerts the most influences. (i.e. can't decide and you pick the first choice)
having balance among perceptions and attitudes
Attribution of control
Asking if someone was in control of their behavior
self serving bias
taking credit for positive things, denying the negative
singling out 1-2 strong qualities in a person and attributing their whole personality to them

fundamental attribution error
when we assess someone's behavior based solely on who they are and not because of their current situation.

How to increase accuracy of impression formation
1. Analyze Impressions
2. Check Perceptions
3. Reduce Uncertainty
4. Increase Cultural Sensitivity

Impression Management
processes you go through to communicate the impression you want others to have of you
Affinity-Seeking Strategies
techniques used to increase chances of people liking you

1. Be helpful
2. Be In-Control
3. Have Social Equality
4. Be Comfortable/Relaxed

Credibility Strategies
ways to establish your competence, character, and charisma
Self-handicapping Strategies
Tackling difficult tasks your concerned of failing at.

More extreme is setting up problems and solving them

Self-deprecating Strategies
confessing incompetence and inability to others to promote their help
Self-monitoring strategies
monitoring what you say and do

influencing strategies
establishing your knowledge, expertise and right to lead by virtue to influence others of your ways
confirming strategies
communicating to confirm your self image
Verbal Messages
messages sent with words
Gendered language and its effect
Many languages provide genders for different words/things and this effects their attitude towards them based on gender bias
Premodern objective reality
reality not defined by personal orientation
Modern Reality
Reality seen through cultural limitations
Postmodern reality
reality is all symbols and representations - can't see true reality
9 principles of verbal messages
1. Messages are packaged
2. Meanings are in people
3. Meanings are denotative and connotative
4. Messages vary in abstraction
5. Messages vary in politeness
6. Messages can criticize/praise
7. messages vary in assertiveness
8. messages confirm/disconfirm
9. messages vary in cultural sensitivity

Mis-communication when the sender and receiver miss each others meanings
a word's objective definition
a word's subjective or emotional meaning
self-confident and social power in how you communicate
assertiveness vs aggressiveness
assertive is being socially powerful without excess aggression or coercion
acknowledging and accepting another person's presence
ignoring someone
negative face
negative: desiring autonomy to do as we wish

positive face
wishing to be seen as positive and favorable by others
Politeness: Directness
Less polite
Politeness: Indirectness
more acceptable way to refuse things
including all people present in your message
not including certain present people in your message
discrediting gay/lesbians - believing anything not heterosexual is wrong and evil
Disrespect towards older people
judging a whole group based on experience with part of the group
Intensional orientation
viewing things in terms of how they are labeled and talked about instead of how they actually are
Extensional language
judging things based on how they actually are
3 views of emotion
Commonsense view, James-Lange Theory, Cognitive Labeling Theory
Commonsense view of emotion
Event Occurs > You have emotion > You respond Physiologically
James-Lange Theory of emotion
Event occurs > You respond physiologically > You have emotion
Cognitive Labeling Theory
Event occurs > Your respond physiologically > Your interpret the event > You have emotion
3 elements of emotion
bodily reactions, mental evaluations, interpretations
inability to engage in emotional communication
Adaptive emotions
help you adjust appropriately to situations
Maladaptive emotions
get in the way of accomplishing your goals
display rules
what is and isn't allowed in emotional communication
emotional contagion
emotions are contagious
emotional appeals
acting based on emotion
Plutchik's model of emotions: 8 Primary emotions
joy, acceptance, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation
Plutchik's model of emotions: 8 secondary emotions
Optimism, Love, Submission, Awe, Disappointment, Remorse, Contempt, Aggressiveness
Theories of sex differences: Biological explination
Differences in men/women's brains and chemistry
Theories of sex differences: Evolutionary Theory
men/women came to rely on different emotions because they serve different functions
Theories of sex differences: Socialization theory
men/women taught differently about emotions
Owning feelings
taking responsibility for our feelings
Acknowledging your responsibility/feelings in "I sentences"
Expressing Anger: Ventilation
belief that expressing anger lets your vent out negative feelings and benefits your physical and mental well being
Expressing Anger: Darwin's view
Venting anger makes you more anger in the long run
Expressing Anger: SCREAM strategy
1. Self
2. Context
3. Receiver
4. Effect
5. Aftermath
6. Messages

Guidelines for communicating anger
1. Speak calm and logically
2. Examine word choices
3. Consider advantage of delaying the anger
4. Remember cultural rules
5. Apply good IPC skills
6. Consider irreversibility

SCREAM: self
how important is the matter to you?
SCREAM: Context
Is this an appropriate time/place for anger?
SCREAM: Receiver
Is the target person one you wish to receive anger?
SCREAM: Effect
What effect do you want to achieve with the anger?
What are likely long-term effects of getting angry?
SCREAM: Messages
What are appropriate messages in your anger?

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