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Psy Research


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Benefit to Risk Ratio
potential benefit to society strong enough to warrant the potential risk to an individual.
Numremberg Code
roots of today's ethical guidelines.
Inspired by Nazi Crime Trials-Developed in 1948.
war crime trials revealed horrifying atrocities.
Dr. Clausberg......experiments on women
Joseph Mengele-famous for twins experiment.
John Watson and Rosalke Rayner
Conditioning Emotional Reactions
Where does fear come from?
Can you condition emoitonal reaction?
Shown rat (no fear)
rat touched..etc
Milgrim Obedience to Authority
Nazi holocost
Determine Degree to "normal"
citizens obey unethical commends
shock therapy 65 went to maximum shock
Careful Debriefing
Tuskegee Experiment
Conducted by the United States Public Health Service
Examined long term effects of Syphilis
continued after treatment discovered.
Little knowleged gained
Critism of Milgrims
Put subjects through undue stress
Taught subjects difficult facts about themselves.
APA Adoption of Ethical Guidelines
Nuremberg code iimited to medical research
APA promised ethics were also important for psychology.
Subjects might be damaged by emotional or mental conflict.
Respect and Autonomy
participants know what they are getting into and they are free to decide whether or not to cooperate.
informed consent
nature of study
potential risks
voluntary participation
doing good
not doing harm
Made up of various members of the institution.
Researchers fill out form for summision to IRB
Expedited review-granted for minimal risk studies
Full review for greater risk studies.
Burdens as well as benefits of the research should be equally distributed.
Study is as fair as possible.

Control group will n ot get benefits. Experimental group will.
Based on the assumption that the participants will be told what they are getting into and nothing will be done to jeopardize this trust

Establish a relationship of trust
certificate of confidentiality/binding
stored in secure location
Data will be untraceable to participant
Fidelity and Scientific Intergrity
Foster scientific advantages that lead to valid knowledge

poorly designed research
wastes resouces
may lead to invalid conclusions.
Not informing participants of the complete details of study.

Lenient-Deception if only means of ensuring natural behavior.
Milgrims's debriefing
friendly reconcliationa with learner
showed they were pretended to have pain
results sent
they were not the only ones who did this
5 Ways to Debrief
1) Give explanation to reveal truth about the research and your careful consideration of the deception

2) not a reflection of character of intelligence

3) Proceed gredually and patientally with debriefing

4) what did subjects think of research situation

5) Never use Double deception.
8 percent of psy research is conducted on animals.
History of Animal Rights
Vivisection-surgical procedure done on live animals for scientific proced.

Anti vivsection movement
Developed in 19 century ENGLAND
American Antivivsectionist Society founded in philadelphia in 1883
Extreme view of Animal Research
humans have no right to conisider themselves superiod

sentient-capable of experiencing feelings and in particular -pain

Animals have the same rights...privacy, autonomy and freedom from harm.
Moderate View
recognize the need for some meidcal research using animals

reject other research
researchers inflict needless pain and suffering

alternative approaches to research
Use alternative approaches.

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