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Poli Comm Final


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Who used more image ads? Kaine or Kilgore?
Who used more attack ads? Kaine or Kilgore?
Who used more comparison/contrast ads? Kaine or Kilgore?
Whos face did we see more in his ads? Kaine or Kilgore?
Who does Kaine use in his testimonial ad?
First presidential TV ad
Eisenhower, 1952 "Eisenhower Answes America"
First Presidential TV ad that used arguments by visual association was in what year?
First campaign to use the personal witness and neutral reporter ads (the two types of attack ads that replaced the association/concept ads)
Ford. v. Jimmy Carter (1976_
Who aired the Daisy ad and when?
Pres. Johnson in 197?
Who was the Daisy ad attacking and what was the effect of it?
Barry Goldwater. Made everyone think Goldwater was a warmonger - a man who couldn't be trusted w/ our nation's ntnl security
After the Daisy Ad, was Goldwater ever able to rid himself of the negative image?
What was the force of the Daisy ad?
ability to engage viewers' emotions and association their negative response w/ Goldwater
Functions of ads that extroll candidate's virtues
1. tell candidate's story (if challenger); 2. issues; 3. reinforce pos. feelings of supporters and partisans; 4. redefine/soften candidate's image; 5. raise $; 6. present stats or facts on issue; 7. focus on shared public values
Functions of ads that condem/attack/question opponent
1. can set rhetorical agenda for oppponet (hell have to respond) 2. put a candidate on the defensive and so it reduces the time, thought and money allocated to presenting a pos image; can make even a mediocre candidate look better than the opponent in comparison; can reduce candidaates negatives and build their positives by increasing their opponents negatives; contribute to the perception of candidates as bieng strong or decisive; can keep the focus on the areas of strength avoiding areas of vulnerability; can block or prevent meaningful campaign dialogue
Standard audience measure=
"gross rating points"
Gross rating represents what % of the TV viewing audience
A commercial needs to be seen how many times to make an impression?
2-3 times
Now buying _______ pnts. would be considered saturation
What does the purchase of commercial time reflect?
a campagins oerall strategy
What are the four advertising strategies?
Spurt, Fast Finish, The Really Big Show, and The Cruise
Spurt Strategy
spurt early in the campaign 4-6 mo. b4 the election, purhcasing a lot of radio and TV time for 1-2 weeks, supplemented w/ np adv.,yard signs, bumper stickets, etc. Then do a final spurt of lots of radio and tv time
Who shoudl use the spurt strategy?
those who start w/ a disadvantage use this strategy to get into the race
Fast Finish Strategy aka
Silky Sullivan Strateg, Miracle Braves, 51 Giants Strategy
Fast Finish Stragegy
start slowly, only to close w/ a rush and win
who should use the fast finish strategy
candidaates that start w/ a lot of strength
the really big show strategy
capitalize on free news coverage on big events scheduled thruout the campaign. and increase the paid adv. at the time of these events to reinforce msgs, etc.
the cruise strategy
advertise at a steady rate
who should use the cruise strateegy
already ahead and just trying to maintain that lead
flat buy
purchasing a constant number of commercials each day during the stages of the campaign when media will be used
factors influencing which strategy (spurt, fast finish, really big show, and cruise) is used?
availability of funds, poll results, the strategies of opponenents may force mobilization
political consultants provide a lot of services, but mostly...
adv and media related
what does the history of pol adv date back to?
george washington, turning to a grp of advisors for advice on getting elected and governming
what contributed to the professionalism of political campaigning?
advancements in political aprties, improvements in comm and transportation tech., growing contituencies
in 1920 calvin coolidge turned to who for adv advice?
edward bernays
who was the first political adv agency and when was it started?
1934, Whitaker and Baxter
when was tv adv first used for politics?
two main reasons pol. consultants have become essential
getting elected has become a permentant job, helping candidates has become a perpetual job
what decade was the advent of the perpetual candidate?
functions of pol. consultants
help in targeting voters, establish a precinct org, setting up and utilizing phone banks, polling the electorate
four main tasks of poliitical consultants
writers, speech coaches, direct mail specialists, specialists ion tv commercial production and placement
what type of ad tells a candidate's story if the canidate is an unknown challenger running aginst an incumbent?
ad that praises the candidate
what type of ad can set rhetoricla agenda for the opponent, who willll in some fashion, have to respond?
attack ads
what type of ad can reinforce positive feelings of supporters and partisans?
ads that praise the candidate
what type of ad can raise moneY?
ads that praise the candidate
what type of ad may reduce your opponents time, thought, and money allocated to presenting a pos image?
attack ads
what type of ads can contribute to the perception that the candidate is strong or decisive?
attack ads
what type of ad has this golden rule of thumb: they must occur and cocur very rapidly, as well as repeadily
ads responding to attacks or innuendos (after the initial attack)
what are the three forms of ads that respond to attacks or innuendos?
refutation, counteratack, humor/ridicule/absurdidty
refutation (define)
a direct rebuttal to the attack
counterattack (define)
instead of refuting the charge, the cand. launches an dattack on the character/issue positions/motives/actions of the attacker
what type of ads present statistical or factual info on issues?
ads that praise the candidate
what type of ads focus on shared public values?
ads that praise the candidate
what type of ads put the candidate back in an offensive or one up position?
ads responding to attacks or innuendos
gender linkage language effect
observers perceive female and male speakers differently based on their language. female comm is rated more highly than males on sociointellecutal status (high social status and literate) and aesthetic quality (nice and beautiful) and males are rated more higly on dynamism (strong and aggressive)
language expectancy theory
expectations about language behaviors influence the acceptance or rejection of persuasive msgs
what is cuasing the use of responds ads more and more frequent and rapidly?
increasing use of attack ads and "satteeliting"
how fast can response ads air?
6 hours after the attack
do men or women use more attack ads?
what do women attack in their ads?
opponetns issues rather than image

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