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Soc 212


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Walter Camp
• - Taylorizing
o Concept of mass production
• Introduces progess
Walter Camp, an athlete at Yale, innovated and “taylorized” the game of rugby into the game of American Football. He created specialized roles for players, and laid the foundation for head coaches and coaching staffs (Markovits Lec, 2010). He also established measurability on the gridiron such as yard markers; he changed the “English scrum” into a measurable game of undisputed possession (Markovits & Hellerman, 75). By the early 1900’s there were paid coaching staffs, stadiums, rivalries, rules, and conferences. Walter Camp transformed football into the epitome of a modern American sport.
the birth of modern football and its dominance on the collegiate level didn’t truly take place until the rise of the Yale football program with the emergence of Walter Camp. Both a player and a coach for Yale’s football team, Camp is widely recognized as the father of American football (Spirn 64). Among many significant contributions to the regulations of modern football, Camp is responsible for creating the snap-back from center, the system of downs, and the points system.
From 1880 to 1900, player positions became specialized, and mass plays required the cooperation and synchronization of all the players on the field. Camp and others also changed the rules of rugby football to reflect this evolving science, setting up a framework within which players and coaches could use greater organizing and planning to their advantage (Spirn 65).

Set up paid coaching staffs

Boston Game
o 1863. Started by prep school kids in New England, more running-based, not kicking. Game got popularized, less barbaric then Bloody Mondays. 1869, first football game.

o oneida football club (1862-5)
⬢ made up of two boston secondary schools
o play a hybrid of football
o The more regulated Boston game seemed more appropriate than the unruly and previously abolished Bloody Mondays; Harvard embraced it. Schools joined in and wanted to compete against each other, and a rulebook was established in 1869. In 1874 Harvard takes the new game to McGill, an established prestigious institution that played more of a rugby styled game, and Harvard came back to the states embracing that style after beating McGill at its own game. Rugby became defined as the rough game played by gentleman, and soccer became viewed as a gentle game played by rough men. In about a year, soccer was eliminated, as universities did not like the use of the feet and instead came to appreciate the hard-hitting carrying game (Spirin, 52).
One such group of prep school boys in Boston formed the Oneida Football Club in 1862. The original Oneidas had been a tribe of Iroquois Indians long gone from the Boston environs, but the boys liked the heroic aura of the name. The mainspring of the bunch was teenager Gerrit Smith Miller, named for his maternal grandfather, the ardent abolitionist Gerrit Smith. Young Miller was a natural leader and exceptional athlete who soon had his gang practicing soccer and rugby on the Boston Common. After awhile, the boys tired of both games, perhaps because they could find no one to play. Rather than disband, they occupied their time by inventing a new game, one that combined their favorite features of both soccer and rugby. They liked goal kicking from the former and running with the ball from the latter, and both became features of their hybrid, "The Boston Game".

Gerrit Smith Miller

Red Stockings, First Football game
Alexander Cartwright
o Rules of Baseball
• NY accountant/bankteller
• In the 1840s starts with others (firemen, policemen) playing regularly on 27th st and 4th avenue
• Form a regular club, named themselves the New York Knickerbockers
• 1845
• Alex Cartwright writes down the rules
• Very important
• Modernizes→ writes down the grammar of the game
• Of his rules many are still current today
o 3 out all out
o 3 base diamond
o batting in rotation
o 9 man teams
o each player plays a particular position
• specialization
o location of the pitchers “box” (today is the pitchers mound)
• until the 1850s the pitcher was actually serving the batter—pitcher and batter were enemies (tried to trick each other)
• the knickerbockers went to allesion field in Hoboken, nj and played against another team
o game lasted until 4 or 5 inning because whoever scored 21 bases won the game in that time
• after the game there would be a very big fancy dinner
• socializing was much more important then the event itself

Keensaw Mountain Landis
First baseball commissioner. He was put there after the black sox scandal to make sure that would never happen again. He supports the integrity of the game, wanted the commissioner to be the sole position. 1920-1944`
- How is USA exceptional
American bourgeoisie established its own game, baseball, while rejecting a sport closely associated with it in cricket. Baseball’s downward dissemntion among the masses made it popular to everyone.
- 2. young elites at top American universities prerferred British elite sport, rugby, rather than soccer. 3. Invention, presence, dissemniatnon of basketball. All these led America’s sport space to become occupied and filled up. No space for soccer left.

- Why is rowing important?
⬢ 1852- inter-collegiate rowing games
⬢ training for players to get stronger
⬢ want to beat Harvard
⬢ competition in inherent
⬢ become an issue of college pride
⬢ British ideals became big in America
⬢ Led to football
⬢ Was the top sport
⬢ Thought to be for the gentleman and the high class strong character building athletes

Gamenshaft vs. Gezelshaft
two sociological theories developed by the Germans. In gamenshaft, someone is tied to a larger association i.e. more than your self-interests. Gezelshaft is when you focus on the self more than the larger association.
Cap Anson
1st basemen and manager for the Chicago Whitestockings. Racist guy refused to play with black guys. As of late 1880s, Cap Anson pulled his team when opposing team fielded three African Americans → since then MLB remained completely segregated until 1948
Bloody Mondays
o Violent
⬢ First Monday in October (sophomores beating up the freshmen)
⬢ 1850- Harvard faculty outlaws bloody Mondays
⬢ this is the beginning of American football
⬢ in the meantime inter-collegiate rivalries develop
o Doing it for fun rather then a structured game
⬢ Almost like hazing rather then a game
- At Harvard, "Bloody Monday" took place on the first Monday of each new college year, starting in 1827. The two lower classes vied with each other so lethally that, as a modern historian put it, "Had 15-yard penalties been handed out, it is conceivable they would have reached California." Apparently, the freshmen kicked the ball well, but the sophomores kept missing the ball and kicking the freshmen. The game, according to another account, "consisted of kicking, pushing, slugging and getting angry."

Baseball Wars
⬢ Black sox scandal
⬢ Baseball undergoes turmoil

• giants colts game—when the NFL and football squeezes baseball away form being the number one sport
• watching football on tv become dominant
• going to games becomes secondary
• baseball’s internationalization

• first known professional – pitcher
• charge admissions for the first time – 5 cents
• begins the separation between the viewers and the players
• in the beginning the players and the viewers were the same ( not like today)

• very quick separation of owners and producers
• the players “lose” big time
o the players who were the producers, with larger issues (transportation) gradually started to lose their say

1860 - Baseball Wins
baseball wins
o baseball is hegemonic in the East which means its basically hegemonic in America at the time
o took the place of cricket
• cricket was very aristocratic
• length of the game could last 3-5 days
• roster’s divided by gentlemen and players
• time consuming
• very hard to win
• played in 2 innings
• both teams have to be given an equal chance to bat
• many games are not won—very American
• ties are not acceptable ( we don’t like ties)
• baseball
• much faster than a cricket game
• above all it allows offense
o in cricket its possible that the first 3 batters are up the whole time
o in baseball everybody gets a chance up at bat
• baseball allows offense, you come to bat at least 3 maybe 4 times
• the Americans
• cricket players see themselves as being inherently elitist
o not “American”
• cricket players used their language to exclude not include and baseball did the exact opposition
• baseball used their language to include

• Cambridge under graduate—JC Thring
o Sits down and starts doing the same for the game of football—known as the Cambridge rules
o These are the rules that break into rugby football and association football
o Geitgeist means time and spirit
• Something that is part of a particular time
• Something to do with industrialization, organization

o Jerry Pumsigreen(?) drafted and first African American to play for Red Sox, making all teams now integrated
o Last year of Negro Leagues (become obsolete)
o Giants and Dodgers open up the country by moving to California
• With airplane, St. Louis was not end of the country, but near the middle
• Sports space included a state that was soon to surpass NY as largest state, and process of becoming largest and most important US state
• Still people in Brooklyn who hate the Dodgers – their desertion is never forgotten
• Even though they get Mets (unite colors of Dodgers and Giants)
o NFL has championship game played at Yankee Stadium by two very dramaturgy different teams (offense minded Colts, defense minded Giants) – only championship to go into OT
• All of these players had full-time jobs from Jan-Aug (could not live off playing football)
Changes sports space – introduces football as baseball’s major rival

1958 to 1962
Baseball to Football
Baseball Rough Period
o Viewership defines
o Argued to be too slow
o Show how products can be changed in America
• Concerted effort to increase offense → offense attracts (changes marketing structure)
• Introduction of designated hitter; lowering of the mound

Curt Flood
(Flood vs. Kuhn, 1970)
o Refused to accept trade in 1969; loses in court
o But brought about players fighting against reserve clause and seek free agency
o Players realize that they have significant amount of power
- 1973: average salary $29, 303; 1994: $1.3 million
- Free agency gives players free labor power of their skill
- Mainly in sports we berate income that people make
o Because we can’t separate that they are highly skilled workers because they are performing something that we all took part in as kids

Baseball New Global Stage
o since the 1990’s baseball has undergone a globalization
o baseball becomes international
o enters the Olympics
o two major baseball related sports
• men – baseball
• women- softball
• have both been cancelled by the Olympics
• mlb refuses to have their best players participate
• only for soccer is a championship like the world cup so much bigger then the Olympics
• only sport where the Olympic champion is clearly not the best in the world
o played in japan- global sport
o now moving more global: Holland, italy, Russia
o US with MLB is the core, mainly the best baseball players in the world if they want to persue baseball have to be in the MLB
o Majority of baseball players in the MLB are not US citizens
o Pittsburg pirates
• Fielded an all black starting line up
o In 2005 when Houston played they had an all white starting lineup
• Phenomenon
• African Americans have receeded/ lost interest
• Less then 10% African Americans
o Disappearance of baseball in inner cities
o Baseball has a market that doesn’t have colleges
o Disadvantages
• No revenue sharing
• Even though it’s a national sport its also a highly local sport
o From the 1930’s on have made the league an entity that competes

Steroid Period
o Particular handicap for baseball here→ in the sanctity of its numbers
o No other sports in the world are as number conscious
o Baseball numbers have a much greater iconic number in the American narritive then any other
o This has driven attention to steroids
o Don’t really care about the health of players, care about the sanctity of these numbers
• We associate pure meritocracy with numbers
o Steroids have crowded out baseballs attention

o owners caught in colluding
- all this culminates in the lock out of 1994
o world series was canceled
o loss to baseball’s legitimacy
o football surpassed it in popularity
- increasing offense
o fostered steroid era

o mark mcguire and sammy sosa
o going after records, surpassing them
o helped MLB rebound

o cricket match between oxford and Cambridge
o until then universities had never competed against each other

o oxford and Cambridge meet
o discuss what the essence of football should be
o at the end of this meeting majority wins and declares itself a football nation—oct 26 1863
o in Britain becomes soccer

Harvard row against Oxford
o row against oxford
o Hugeee event
• Harvard represents the new America
• Harvard loses but they learn and look at what oxford and Cambridge are playing… they’re playing the rugby version
• Rugby= rough game played by gentlemen
• Soccer = gentle game played by rough men

o Harvard invites mcgill (a crucial player in 3 of the 4 main sports)
o May 15th they play a game of rugby and Harvard ties mcgill 0-0
o Whole story is about prestige
o First game they play with rugby rules and Harvard beats mcgill
o They return and play against tufts and win again
o Want a win over yale
o Harvard beats yale (yale had never played this form of the game)
o Within one year all other universities are playing
o 1875-1876 rugby wins
o Mich plays their first game in 1879
o Harvard wins for rugby BUT yale transforms rugby into American football

Mich football
o 1862
⬢ the chronicle mentions that sophomores beaten by freshmen in football
⬢ no sign of a ball recoreded
o class of 1872 played the class of 1873
o Michigan students form a football team and challenge cornell to play a game in Cleveland
⬢ 1877- challenge form the university of Chicago was declined
o may 30, 1879
⬢ game against a college in Wisconsin
⬢ first game of American rugby football played west
o nov 1879
⬢ mich plays university of Toronto
⬢ students greeted by a badn
⬢ first of the mich marching band
o 1881
⬢ first time the mich is invited as the first college from anywhere outside the east coast to travel and play east coast established school
⬢ mich played Harvard, yale, and pirncetone
⬢ loses all 3 games
⬢ however Harvard is very impressed by mich spirit and invited them to play in the eastern college league

o important because 2 of the 4 iconic markers of michigna football emerged
o iconic markers are the maize and blue colors, the wolverines
o victors fight song
o colors of the class of 1867 are procreated by the football team

o Swedes hire a strength coach to start coaching the team
o Frank Crawford
⬢ He also played for the team
o Frank Barbour
⬢ Also a yale graduate joins 1892
o Beginning of modernization and specialization
o Beginning of expertise

1893 Mich Football
o pres angel
⬢ first university outside of the east coast
⬢ he gives the team a budget $6,095
⬢ mich starts to travel eastward
o mich taught notre dame the game of football

o creation of a league
o called the western conference
o teams in this conference
⬢ mich
⬢ Illinois
⬢ Northwestern
⬢ Perdue
⬢ Wisconsin
⬢ Minn
⬢ University of Chicago
o Western conference dec 1, 1899
⬢ Expanded by two new comers
⬢ Indiana
⬢ Iowa
⬢ Then becomes big 10 with ohio state joining

o championship game between mich and Chicago
o lewis albell
⬢ writes the song the victors
⬢ most recognized fight song
⬢ becomes iconic for Michigan

o All America football conference
⬢ Crucial because it starts integrating its taems with a number of key African American players

NFL epitome of post modern sport
• it’s a television phenomenon
• the sport that virtually none of us have played
• the players and the rest of the world are by far the most separate from one another
• they are Americas gladiators
• this most successful phenomena is predominantly a tv sport
• the doing and the following are completely separate
• Think Super Bowl and MNF

James Naismith
o Decide basketball should be a no contact sport
o It should emphasize skill
o If football emphasizes running with the ball basketball should emphasize putting the ball on the floor
o Ball had to be fairly large and initially used a soccer ball

• Wanted it to be a game of hands because hands are much better controlling agents then feet
o In order to emphasize skill Dr. Naismith wants to create a small “goal”
o He thought that it should be horizontal rather then vertical and he wanted it to be above the players heads
o Because otherwise in the gym the defense would congregate and he did not want any contact
o This is the beginning of basketball
o The 13 Naismith rules were hooked on to the entry of the gym
• He did this with a very important purpose in mind
• Wanted to mirror Martin Luther nailing the 95 these in wood burning
• Naismith leaves and joins the university of Kansas
• At Kansas influenced Phog Allen
• A player at Kansas creates a basketball lengendary progam – Dean Smith
• The key players of American basketball (and college basketball) all go back to its founders
o 10 foot basket
• comes from the fact that the janitors ladder in Springfield, mass. Reached 10 feet
o the center jump
• until 1920s was done after every basket
o 5 seconds you have to in bound the ball
o this game spreads like wild fire in a matter of 10 years
• has a new space called – Indoors
• basketball becomes very early on the game of inner cities
• only need a little space, it can be indoors, and just need to put up a basket
• you can play this game in the winter so it has a new season because you can play it indoors
• the only game that you can really play by yourself
o All Starts in NY
o By 1892, basketball had grown so popular on campus that Dennis Horkenbach (editor-in-chief of The Triangle, the Springfield college newspaper) featured it in an article called "A New Game",[1] and there were calls to call this new game "Naismith Ball", but Naismith refused.[2] By 1893, basketball was introduced internationally by the YMCA movement.[1] From Springfield, Naismith went to Denver where he acquired a medical degree and in 1898 he joined the University of Kansas faculty at Lawrence, Kansas.

Dr. Gulick
• Hires an educators—Mcgill graduate, Dr. Naismith (for chief of staff)
o Create school for Christian workers
o Dr. Gulick tells Dr. Naismith he should devise a game
o Decide basketball should be a no contact sport
o It should emphasize skill
o If football emphasizes running with the ball basketball should emphasize putting the ball on the floor
o Ball had to be fairly large and initially used a soccer ball
• Wanted it to be a game of hands because hands are much better controlling agents then feet

Ned Irish
o Knicks Founder
o Begins NIT
o NIT gets fucked by CCNY scandal
o NCAA takes over eventually

1934 b ball
o foundation of the NIT
⬢ and foundation of basketballs new yorkness
⬢ Ned Irish
⬢ Newly formed MSG which had been institutionalized for hockey and not so much basketball
⬢ New irish established a New York school tournament
o Columbia
o Fordham
o St johns
o CCNY **most important
⬢ Intra NY tournament
⬢ So successful it beomces a NY event
⬢ NCAA is so impressed by that in the 1937 its starts in own tournament
⬢ NIT is the more pretegious of the two
⬢ 1950- CCNY wins
o also wins other championship titles
o CCNY only college to have won two diff titles in the same year
o A year later the black sox scandal
o CCNY are found out to have cheated
⬢ Players are banned for life
⬢ Ends NY prominence in basketball to this day
⬢ NY basketball never recovers

- kind of like basketball, played by little girls in England
- First called boxball (basket was a box), then called basketball (when changed to a peach basket)
- Netball → korfball

UCLA Dynast 64-75
o 10 win championship team under coach Wooden
• First regular season nationally televised game 1968 – UCLA Bruins and Houston Cougars

The Start of the Madness
1979 Michigan State - Indiana State game – most watched (college?) basketball game of all time
• Larry Bird and Magic Johnson – single handedly led these two teams to the finals
• *them being drafted saves the NBA
• Catapults the Final Four and NCAA tournament to what it is today (part of American culture)

Fab Five
Fab Five” – absolutely instrumental in making basketball to hip-hop, urban culture and carrying basketball globally
• Became expression of a lifestyle – complete transformation of sport/entertainment
o Amazing that team that almost won National Championship but failed twice is so well-known → iconic

College Basketball
o Flourishing enterprise
o Often surpassing NBA in following and TV viewership
o 1966 NCAA final – Texas Western, all black team beats Kentucky
o Strict/important racial divides until ‘66

Womens college ball
o Not allowed to dribble ball – later became one dribble, then two
o Female rules that really made game substantially different
o Changes in 1975 – Imaculative College in Pennsylvania wins the AIAW (precursor to NCAA – doesn’t include women’s basketball until 1982)
o Until 1982 – not equal in terms of records, rules and would argue rivalry
o Women’s basketball has come a commensally long way from 1975
o However, unlike many other sports – was played from the get go

Early important pro b ball teams
o Original Celtics
o Harlem Globetrotters
• In 50s become what we know them as today
• Entertainment act – not really playing the game
• Will Chamberlain joins before going to NBA
• Have been most watched sports team of all-time in terms of spectatorship, with constant travels
• Until invention of 24-second clock in 1954, the NBA games that had Globetrotters as main act were much more successful (main attraction)
o Harlem Renaissance (“Rens”) – big rivals with globetrotters

ABL 1920
o Prominent in Midwest
o Had a very good team, Cleveland Rosenblooms
• Mainly Jewish team
o Important because:
• Creates first national radio contract for basketball
• Creates company teams (ex: Rosenblooms – large department store)

• 1946 BAA team plays NBL team in Toronto
o between NY Knicks and Toronto Huskies
o NBA regards as their very first game
• 1949 merger happens → two merge and become NBA

Minni Lakers
⬢ Won first five titles
⬢ First big-man George Mikan played by Minneapolis Lakers
⬢ Played center, used pivot to pass to wings

What the 24 clock did
o Really minor league in sense
• Cant hold on to television contracts
• Game that is played rather than followed
o Changes some with invention of 24-second clock (1954)
• Previously called “stall-ball”
• Compelled teams to play offense – completely changes the NBA

Early NBA Stars and Rivals
• 1950s – Will Chamberlain
• Center of Philadelphia Warriors
• March 2, 1961 against NY Knicks scored 100 points – that year he averaged more than 50 points
• His big rivals are team led by Red Auerbach – who draft Casey Jones and Bill Russell
• First to lead small Catholic university to two consecutive national championships AND win gold metal in Olympics
• Start the Celtics dynasty
• Rival between Russell and Chamberlain
• Oscar Robertson – Cincinnati guard
• Last person to average a triple-double over a season
• Gerry West – also part of 1960 Olympic metal

o After Celtic dynasty runs into serious problems
o By the 1960s rivalry – ABA, very successful year
• Emphasized offense, open-play
• Cheaper tickets
• 3-point shot (NBA eventually adopts) – phenomenal gimmick
• Serious threat to the NBA

1970 Nba problems
• Knicks – entire team is black (still not quite acceptable, tainted by a lot of recreational drug use, etc.)
• League is in serious decline
• Cannot hold on to major national contracts
o 1980 NBA final between LA Lakers (with Kareem Abdul Jabar and Magic Johnson) was not broadcast on live television

o NBA has no association with FIBA and is the only league that is not a part of the global federation
o FIBA is not more adopting the NBA rules
o Very few people followed the NBA championship this past August in the United States and in the rest of the world it was huge
o In the U.S. it is not given that their best players will play
⬢ Playing for the United States has become more important
o 2012 Olympics, predicted that Kobe and Lebron will play

NBA Recovers
o Starts to change in the 1980s – solely result of:
o Magic, Bird duo
o Lakers, Celtics cross-country rivalry
o The entrance of two people who make NBA who it is today:
• Michael Jordan – by early 90s becomes third best known sports person in world (first - Muhammad Ali, second – Pele)
• David Stern
• Created basketball into global entity like nothing else
• Understood to go global after fall of Soviet Union → makes NBA participate in Olympics

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