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Wherry's Four Steps to Effective PR
* Do a good job
* Do a good job
* Do a good job
* Tell people about it
Communication is important, but it's more important:
for managment to make proper decisions
Questions about management:
1) Are they acting responsibly?
2) Fully aware of publics who will be positively or negatively affected by the decision?
3) Taking into account the possible reactions of these publics?
4) Including PR in mapping out appropriate communication or response strategies?
Communication Process Early Model
The Communication Process
* A source
* A process of encoding
* A message
* A channel
* A process of decoding
* A receiver
* The potential for feedback
* The possibility of noise
Communication Arenas
* Interpersonal (face to face)
* Machine-assisted interpersonal communication
* Mass communication
For communication to occur...
there must be individual interpretation and response
Reaching Passive Audiences
billboards, tv or radio ads, waiting room, internet pop-ups
Reaching Active Audiences
demonstrations (trade shows), brochures, magazines, dvds, videos, conferences
Theory of Selectivity
* Exposure
* Attention
* Perception
* Reception
Five Stage Adoption Process
* Awareness
* Interest
* Evaluation
* Trial
* Adoption
Effective Messages
write with clarity, short and simple
write at 9th grade level (4.2 sentences, 142 syllables per 100 words)
symbols, acronyms, slogans
no jargon, slangs, cliches, euphemisms, discriminatory language
PR is a PERSUASION function to:
Change or neutralize hostile opinions
Turn latent opinions into positive attitudes
Retain favorable opinions
PR as Persuasion
Know your audience/publics
Appeal to public's self-interest
Credible source/spokesperson
Credible Source/Spokesperson
* Expertise
* Sincerity
* Charisma
Third party Endorsement
other believable sources who speak on your behalf
Celebrities as spokespeople
* Use for simple messages
* Ensure believability
* Don't overuse
Important aspects of persuasion
* Message clarity
* Timing is everything
* Audience buy-in or involvement
Audience Characteristics
* Increasingly visually oriented
* Celebrity worshippers
* Cynical about what they see and hear
* Expanding globally
Print Media
* Best for complex messages
* Historical respositories
* Cannot match electronic immediacy
* Papers accept news releases/news tips
* Magazines' special editions often link with org messages
Motion Pictures
* Strong emotional impact
* Silent promos in movies increasing, but still limited
* Cost of inclusion prohibits all but largest entities
* Institutional films, DVDs becoming valuable PR tools
* Strong emotional impact
* Leaves strong visual memories with viewers
* Local and national reach for entities
* Interviews and talk show guests
* Video news releases
* Highly adaptable
* Specific audiences
* Message prep quick and cheap
* Easier access
* Frequent talk shows
* Live remotes
* Local sponsorships
* PSAs
* Most dynamic of all media
* Broadest possible audience (global)
* Interactive
* NO gatekeepers; allows entities to control messages
* Cheap and easy
Internet PR
* E-mail distribution
* WWW sites
* Chat rooms, news groups, listservs
* Better interaction w/ traditional media
* Webcasting and conferencing
Winning Websites
* Make it fast--load in less than 8 seconds
* Maintain professional and functional design
* Identify purpose
* Update frequently
* No dead links
* Monitor all pages for consistency and professionalism
New Media Challenges
* Time-consuming transactions, error messages
* Spam, clutter, unsolicited advertisements
* Persistent and controversial security issues
Guidelines for Media Relations
* Recognize differences in media
* Follow legitimate news procedures
* Make pitches quickly and clearly
* Do not overly hype story or beg
* Be honest and helpful
* Do not speak off record
* Do not ask to edit story
10 Ways to Make News
* Give an award
* Conduct a contest
* Hire/promote personnel
* Open/expand/remodel facility
* Launch product or new campaign
* Address some local need or issue
* Make a speech
* Involve a celebrity
* Issue a report
* Localize report issued by other entity
News Releases
* Backbone of media relations work
* Media spend most time processing, not gathering, information
* News release NOT paid advertising; judged solely on newsworthiness
* Affected by timing, competing news
Framing of Release
* Key message?
* Primary target public?
* Public's self-interest?
* Best medium to reach it?
* What objective does release serve?
News Release Rules
* Grab and hold attention
* Short, succinct writing
* Avoid cliches, jargon, and hype
* Focus on news, not brand name
* Gather or create interesting quotes
* Include "boilerplate" info at end
* Use proper news protocol: AP style and inverted pyramid
Inverted Pyramid Style
* Lead: Most important!
* Transition: next in importance, connector between lead and body copy
* Body copy: supportin details, descending order of importance
News Release Format
* 8 1/2 X 11 paper
* contact info
* for immediate release
* boldface headline
* dateline
* lead paragraph- 5 Ws
* Body text, inverted pyramid
* double space, big margins
* standard, 10-12 point typeface
Online differences in news releases
* More of a teaser than actual release
* Specific subject line
* 200 words or less, avoid scrolling
* Bullet points to convey key messages
* Contact information
* No attachments
Publicity Photos
* High resolution: 200-300 dpi
* No "grip and grin", action shots
* Simple, uncluttered, principle of 3rds
* Feature action, doing something
* Interesting camera angles
* Portray subject in best light (literally)
* Include brief photo caption or cutline
* Bulleted listing of who, what, when, where, why or how
* Less than one page
Media Kits
* Tailored to specific events/stories
* Could include:
Straight news story on event/issue
Basic fact sheet of event/issue
Historical fact sheet/backgrounder
Program/itinerary of events
Bios on executives or involved individ.
Relevant visual materials: photos, magazines, brochures, etc.
Use when:
Large story that interests several media
Need to control setting and information
Want all information to be released at once
Individual Interviews
Use when:
Interest or request from one media outlet
Want relationship with one media outlet
Want extensive story
Informal conference
combines conference and individual interviews
News Conference
* Location convenient for media with suitable facilities
* Right day and time
* Send media advisory or call reporters
* Information on website
* Rehearse credible spokesperson
* Give statement, accept questions
Allow sufficient time for interview
Know topic, have materials available
Brief the interviewee
Brief reporter on interviewee's background
Set ground rules for interview
Avoid off-the-record remarks
Help reporter get story sought
Stay in background, don't answer questions
Offer to answer questions later
DO NOT ask to review articl
communication piece created by an organization to provide info to its targeted publics (brochurse, newsletters, magazinse, posters, etc.)
Basic principles
* Form follows function
* White space
* Principle of thirds
* Pictures say a thousand words
Was it planned well?
Did recipients understand?
Strategy could have been more effective?
Were audiences reached?
Desired objective reached?
Unforseen circ. affect success?
Kept in budget?
What would make it better?
Types of measurement
Media impressions
Advertising equivalency
800 numbers
Audience attendance
Awareness and attitudinal surveys
Communication audits
difference between "what is" and "what ought to be" from view of publics
Usually evolves in predictable manner
Potential Status
some person notices and develops interest, starts talking to others and develops plans in small groups
Imminent Status
issue potential accepted by others, gains support by specialty media, still not important to organization or government
Current Status
issue becomes highly accepted or main topic in convo, mass media begins to notice and report
Critical Stage
sides polarize and exert pressure on each other; intense debate, action demanded
Dormant Stage
action taken, allegedly resolved; sides "go home" but issue never really dies
Proactive Approach to Issues Management
Anticipate problems and threats
Minimize surprises
Resolve issues properly
Prevent crises
How to be Proactive
Know where threats or problems come from, who publics are, and what motivates them
Grunig's Situational Theory
Problem recognition
Level of involvement
Constraint recognition
Publics and Events
Events trigger public opinion
Public opinion doesn't anticipate events, it only reacts to them
Huge events can swing public opinion, but usually only temporarily
Absolute Ethics
established principles enduring, never change (Western world)
Situational Ethics
ethical views depend on situation (japan and asian societies)
PR people accountable to:
Their employers
Their public interest
Their professional association
The Ethical Advocate
PR people serve as advocates of organization
PRSA Cod of Ethics
Act as responsible advocates
Be accurate and truthful; do not obstruct or corrupt information flow
Provide objective counsel and avoid conflicts of interest
Be faithful and loyal to organization
Respect opinions of others
Advance the profession through appropriate personal development
Licensing and Accreditation
Ed Bernays advocated licensing
Major encroachment into First Amendment philosophies
Accreditation is perhaps better way
But that has no teeth
Commercial Speech
advertising, product publicity, or promotions-- generally seen as different from regular free private speech
How state can regulate in public interest
Federal Trade Commission
Federal Communication Commission
Securities and Exchange Commission
printed falsehood
verbal falsehood
Defamation of character
printed or verbal falsehood
To be proved as defamation:
Must prove:
1. Statement was communicated through media
Person identified or identifiable
Actual injury occurred (lost money, reputation, or mental suffering)
Statement was malicious or negligent
Avoiding Libel suits
* Think before you speak or write
* Be accurate and deliberate in writing
* Don't over-hype product claims by using unfair comparisons
* Honor fair comment cluases--don't get too upset at constructive critique
Fair comment
Ebert and Roeper
Protecting Privacy
Stick to stories, be careful of personal ones
Confirm facts, stick to them
Gain consent for photos; use in context
Don't release employee info to media without consent
Copyright laws
doesn't protect ideas, but specific implementation--know what materials should be copyrighted and how to correctly use copyrighted materials
Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998
protects original material for life of creator plus 70 years; 95 years for corporations
Fair Use
other material can be quoted if cited properly, doesn't apply when making multiple copies or seeking monetary gain
brand is protected
protected, will be registered when it "grows up"

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