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theology 3 2


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*all moral values are relative to some particular indivisual or culture
*no individual or culture has a uniquely priveleged standpoint
*no universal moral values
cultural relativism
different cultures throughout history have had drastically different moral codes
the essential characterists of something that make it the kind of being it is, as distinct from other kinds of being. everything material has a nature
all living things have a soul. 3 types vegetative, appetietive, rational
plant-vegetative soul
eat, breath, drink, reproduce, grow
animal-appetative soul
emotions, desires, good sense, raise young, social
rational soul
intellect, will,, sepcific to human soul
purpose out goal in life
*all nature's have a telos
*determined by nature of being
*get to eudaimonia
happiness, human flourishing
*telos of a human
*a state of character that allows a person to judge with ones rational part the appropriate way to feel/desire and act with respect to a moral choice
*chooce between two vices
*virtue is necessary for human flourishin and happiness
*happiness doesn't equal feeling good.
*happiness =possessing the virtues
*fairly stable stes of attitudes, opinions and dispositions that results in fairly stable patterns of acting and reacting
vicious character
doesn't know right and doesn't do right
incontinent character/ soft character
know right but doesn't do right, gives into pain and pleasure
continent/enduring character
know right, do right but don't want to do right, doesn't give into pain or pleasure
knows right, does right, wants to do right
Kant view (look at notes)
intellect and will also create misery, instinct is better at yielding to happiness: purpose of I&W can't always be happiness
*moral: does duty even if it doesn't make you happy
categorical imperative
applied to everyone to every situation
*act only according to the maxim you can will to be a universal law... can't result in a contradiction, must be a world people would want to live ine
*treat all persons as ends in themselves, not as means to an end
Mill principle of utility
the moral action is the one that yields the most pleasure/happy consequences for the greatest number
Mill's happiness
*presences of pleasure, absence of pain... different levels of pleasure
*created in the image of God
*we are creation not the creator
*natural destiny: finite
*divine destiny: infinite (eternal life with god)
*our desire destiny changes, affects how we live our human destiny
*our natural humaness is good, creative grace, help
*teaches us how to live in union with God
*sacrifical death reconciles us to God
*collective grace
*Holy Spirit at pentecost
*HS helps us take ownership of the salvation won by Christ, we become more like Christ, to be in union with God
*elevating grace
*a complete description of the state of the world and a complete statment of the laws of nature together account for every truth about what happens at every point in time in the future
*all of our actions are the result of past events and the laws of nature instead of the result of free will
*behavior usually considered voluntary is actually result of past experience and environmental conditions
*not responsible for actions
classical conditioning
*process by which a behavior is repeatedly reinforced by association with something else, such that the presence of the something else triggers the behavior
refutations of determinism
*not responsible for actions
*no free will
*actions are caused by forces beyond my control
*no spirit
personal sin
*action deed, omission, thought, word
Criteris: wrong, know wrong (not ignorant), do it anyway
social sin
*when personal sin affects society by creating/perpetuating an environment in which sin is "the way things are"
*embodied in our social norms, laws, policies
*affects groups of people
object of a moral act
"what" of the action
intention of the moral action
"why" reason or motive... internal
circumstance of the moral action
varies, environment in which the action performed secondary factors affecting the action... external
moral action
*either intention or object can of itself make the action right or wrong
*circumstances affect action by changing the degree of rightness or wrongness
*more or less good, not change right to wrong

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