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who invented phrenology? Is it still commonly used today?
Franz Gall invented Phrenology and no it is not used today. This theory claimed that bumps on a person's head revealed character triats and mental abilities. he was right in saying that various brain regions have certain functions
what branch of psychology links behavior and mental rpocesses to biology
biological psychology
is it simple to tell the difference between animals and humans when examining small brain tissue samples/
no it is not becuz humans and other animals operate similarly
how do dendrites aid w/info
Dendrites are the short bushy fibers that branch from a neuron. It receives info and conducts it to the cell body
how does the axon help the dendrite pass along info?
The axon is an extension of a neuron that pases the info the dendrite receives to other neurons, muscles or glands.
what controls muscles?
motor neurons
what protects and insulates axons?
the myelin sheath is a layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon of some neurons
what helps to speed up neural impulses
myelin sheath. i.e. in multiple scelerosis the myelin sheath degenerates and th eslowing of communication to muscles results in eventual muscle loss.
what is the action potential
it is a brief electrical impulse that travels down the axon
when is an action potential usually triggered
neurons usually fire impulses when receiving signals from sense receptors stimulated by pressure, heat and chemical messages from other neurons
__________ is the lvl of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
This is also reffered to as a cleft or synaptic gap. What is the psych name for it and what does it do
The synaptic gap is the gap that separates the axon terminal of a neuron from whatever else is near
what can go thru synaptic gaps to send messages?
Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers that can go thru synaptic gaps.
how do neurotransmitters influence a neuron to generate a neural impulse?
a neurotransmitter, after crossing the synpatic gap, has to bind to a receptor site on the receiving neuron. Then they can influence a neuron to generate a neural impulse
what neuron transmitter is vital for memory and learning
acetylcholine (ACh)
why should a person not flood their body with artifical opiates? if it feels good who cares?
By utilizing artifical opiates it becomes harder to produce natural ones and the body might become so dep. o the artifical ones that they might actually stop producing natural opiates.
what would happen if our body did not have Acetylcholine
W/o ACh our muscles would not contract. i.e. some S.A. indians have poison on the tip of their arrows that blocks ACh from receptor sites. hence, ppl die in violent muscle contractions
what is the body's speedy electro chemical comunication system consisting of all the nerve cells of the PNS and the CNS
central nervous system contains PNS and CNS
what is formed by the brain and spinal cord?
The brain and spinal cord are formed by the central nervous system (CNS)
The peripheral nervous system is contained in nerves. how do they help the CNS?
The PNS info is in electrical cables known as nerves. They connect the central nervous sustem w/muslces, glands and organs
how is the central nervous system connected to the rest of the body?
the PNS has sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of th ebody.
what are the three types of neurons?
1) interneurons
2) motor neurons
3)sensory neurons
what neurons are a part of the central Nervous system?
The interneurons are a part of th eCNS and enable its internal communication and intervene betwen the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
what are motor neurons?
neurons that carry outgoing info from the CNS to muscles and glands
The autonomic nervous system (within the perihpheral nervous system) controls what?
The Autonomic nervous system controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs i.e. heart
what division of the autonomic system arouses defensive action?
If you are alarmed the sympathetic division will speed up ur heartbeat and arouses defensive action.
what division of the autonomic system calms the body and conserves its energy?
sympathetic division
what do the CT and MRI reveal abt the brain?
the CT(computed tomography scan) and MRI(magnetic resonance imaging) scan reveal brain structures
What identifies brain activity in the brain?
The PET(positron emission tomography), the MRI and the EEG (electroencephalogram) show brain activity
electrical wave activity is traced using ________________
the Electroencephalogram (EEG) traces electrical wave activity in the brain. This is done by placing electrodes on the scalp
what is a PET (positron emission scan)
this shows brain activity by ingesting a radioactive sugar. This ocates and measures the radioactivity and detects where sugar goes displaying each brain's area and its use of sugar. Active neurons use lots of sugar.
what tool causes atoms in the brain to spin?
In a MRI scan the head is put in a magnetic field which aligns the spinning atoms. Radio waves disorient the atoms. When they return to their spinnning the release detectable signals showing a detailed pic of brain's soft tissues.
what is the central and oldest part of the brain
the brain stem is the oldest part of the brain and it is where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull.
what controls the heartbeat and breathing
the medulla is where the spinal cord swells lightly forming it.
what controls automatic survival functions and servers as a crossover pt. where nerves can go to and form each side of the brain
what extends from the spinal cord all the way up to the thalamus and what does it do?
the reticular formatio nis key in controling arousal
what is on top of the brainstem and does it send the brain's replies to the cerebellum and medulla?
The thalamus is on top of the brainstem. It is the sensory switchboard that receives informatin from all of the senses(EXCEPT SMELL) and then passes it on to the higher brain regions that deal w/ sense. and yes it sends info to the cerebellum and medulla
what is the cerebellum
this is the little brain and is two wrinkled hemispheres. It directs volutary movement.
what includes HAH and what is HAH
the Limbic system has HAH and HAH is the hippocampus, the amygdala and the hypothalamus
what does the hippocampus do?
it processes memory
what is the limbic system associated with?
It is related to emotions i.e. fear and agression, and drives i.e. sex and food drive.
what is a part of HAH and is link to emotion?
The amygdala i.e. a monkey in an experiment had this part of his brain lesioned and no matter what was done to him he remianed calm. The amygdala aids in the perceptions of emotions and processing of emotional memories.
what performs specific maintenance duties?
The hypthalamus are neural networks that monitor both blood and chemistry and takes orders from other parts of the brain. i.e. thinking abt sex can stimulate hypothalamus to secrete hormones
what is the body's control and processing center
the cerebral cortex
what aids in insulating the myelin sheath? what else does this thing do?
The glial cells aid in providing nutrients, neural connections and insulating the myelin sheath
what part of the cerebral cortex is related to speaking and muscle movement and in making judgments?
the frontal lobes contain the association areas. This is what enables us to plan and judge. Damage to the front lobes may alter personality. i.e. phineas Gage
what includes the sensory cortex
the parietal lobe
what part of the cerebral cortex is involved in spatial and mathematical reasoning?
the Occipital lobes. Surprisingly this area of Einstein's brain was relatively normal. u would expect this math genius to have a huge parietal lobe
what is at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movement?
the motor cortex in the frontal lobes aids voluntary movement. When certain parts of the body are stimulated in one regions opposite parts of the body are moved
_________ is parallel to the motor cortex. IT is also an area that receives info from the senses and from the movement of body parts.
the sensory cortex is on the left hemisphere but receives input from the body's right side
damage to any one of the cortex areas can cause a speech impediment. i.e. some of these ppl can speak but not read or vice versa
Broca looks like boca. Keeping this in mind what does this do?
The Broca's area is located in the left frontal lobe. If this were damaged a person would struggle to FORM words while being able to sing and comprehend words
What would damage to the left temporal lobe do?
Since the left temporal lobe contains the Wernicke's area any damage to it means ppl could speak only with meaningless words due to impaired comprehension
1)visual cortex
2)angular gyrus
3)wernicke's area
4)Broca's area
5)motor cortex
how do we use language?
1) we read aloud words that register in the visual area
2)this is relayed to the angular gyrus that transforms the words into and auditory cody
3) this code is understood by the Wernicke's area
4)sent to Broca's area which controls the...
5)motor cortex and creates speech
corpus callosum
large band of neural fibers connecting th etwo brain hemispeheres and carrying messages between them
endocrine system
body's slow chemical communication system a set of glands that release hormones into the system
what glands are right above the kidney and what do they
the adrenal glands secrete th ehormones epineprhine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (no adrenaline). These hormones help arouse the body in times of need
which gland is the gland to rule all other glands?
the pituitary gland! IT is under the influence of the hypothalamus and it regulates growth and controls the other endocrine glands

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