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Ch. 2: Human Development Study and Research


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What is the purpose of a theory?
used to explain data and generate hypotheses that can be tested by research.
What are three basic theoretical issues on which developmental scientists differ?
the relative importance of heredity and environment
the active or passive character of development
the existence of stages of development
Define mechanistic model.
views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli.
Define organismic model.
views development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages.
What are five theoretical perspectives on human development?
Describe the psychoanalytic perspective and what are some theories representative of it?
sees development as motivated by unconscious emotional drives or conflicts

Describe the learning perspective and give examples of representative theories.
views development as a result of learning based on experience.
Watson's and Skinner's behaviorism
Bandura's social learning theory
Describe the cognitive perspective and give examples of representative theories.
concerned with thought processes Piaget's cognitive-stage theory
the information-processing approach
the cognitive neuroscience approach
Describe the evolutionary perspective and give examples of representative theories.
focuses on the adaptiveness, or survival value, of behavior.
represented by E. O. Wilson
Describe the contextual perspective and give representative theories.
focuses on interaction between the individual and the social context. Bronfenbrenner
What ethical issues may arise in research on humans?
right to informed consent
avoidance of deception
protection from harm and loss of dignity
guarantees of privacy and confidentiality
Define microgenetic study.
allows researchers to directly observe change by repeated testing over a short time.
Name and define the 2 most common designs used to study age-related development.
cross-sectional--compares age groups
longitudinal--assess changes in a sample over time
sequential--combines these.
Name the 3 types of experiments and how they differ in level of control/generalizability.
laboratory--easiest to control and replicate
field--more generalizable beyond the study situation
natural--useful in situations in which true experiments would be impractical or unethical.
Define correlational study.
quantitative research design intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between variables exists. only an experiment can determine cause and effect relationship.
Name and define 2 qualitative research methods.
Case study--study of an individual.
Ethnographic study--in-depth study of a culture which uses a combination of methods including participant observation.
What are 3 forms of data collection?
self-reports (diaries, interviews, and questionnaires)
behavioral and performance measures observation
Margaret Mead's research in Samoa
A) established the universality of adolescent rebellion.
B) challenged the inevitability of adolescent rebellion.
C) reaffirmed universal sex roles for men and women.
D) demonstrated that arou
Margaret Mead's research underscores all of the following about human development except
A) the study of people is abstract and esoteric.
B) a cross-cultural perspective can reveal which patterns of behavior are universal and which are not.
Which of the following is not a basic issue for theorists in explaining development?
A) the relative weight given to heredity and environment
B) whether people are active or passive in their own development
C) whether development is
A mechanistic model of college students' drinking behaviors would look at
A) environmental influences, such as advertising and consequences imposed by the college administration for drunkenness.
B) hereditary factors, such as a genetic pred
As you stand in line at the grocery store, you notice the checker frowns and is rude to customers in line ahead of you. You decide to try out what you are learning in your psychology class, so when it's your turn, you say to her, "Rough day, huh?&qu
It was Erik Erikson, not Freud, who stressed the importance of
A) unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations.
B) the role of childhood experiences in forming personality.
C) the presence from birth of sexual urges.
D) the
Negative reinforcement
A) is the same thing as punishment.
B) tends to suppress the likelihood of a targeted behavior.
C) tends to increase the likelihood of a targeted behavior.
D) is not as powerful in modifying behavior as
The information processing approach to development
A) suggests that development occurs in four qualitatively different stages.
B) suggests that children's cognitive development occurs when new information is internalized through the dual pr
Miranda is doing a research study using Bronfenbrenner's model and looks at all the different influences on development. In the part of her paper that talks about the macrosystem, she will focus on
A) the setting in which individuals interact with
Arturo, a fourth-grader, is teaching his 8-year-old brother to put together a model airplane. First Arturo shows Abel how to set up the pieces, then how to glue pieces together. Next Arturo guides is brother's hands as they glue two more pieces together.
A social worker does a home visitation to see if the home is a safe and nurturing environment for the child. She checks for nutritious food in the refrigerator, general cleanliness, and safety concerns, and observes how mother and daughter interact. She
After years of teaching, Professor Rosen realized it was the students who disrupted her class by chatting who would say her class was boring. Professor Rosen could determine that the students disrupt class because they are bored, are bored because they a
The Ethical Guidelines of the American Psychological Association ensure that research participants have all of the following protections except the right to
A) informed consent.
B) decline or withdraw from an experiment at any time.
A ? is a coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain, and predict data, while ? are possible explanations for phenomena used to predict the outcomes of research.
? model views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli, and ? model views development as internally initiated by an active organism.
Mechanistic theorists focus on ? change, and organismic theorists focus on ? change.
The ? perspective views development as shaped by unconscious forces.
A psychologist with a ? perspective will study observable behavior to show which aspects of the environment are controlling that behavior, while a psychologist with a ? perspective will analyze behaviorÂ’s thought processes to see how those processes cha
Henry, a nail-biter, is highly critical of everyone he knows. Hilda is obsessed with germs and cleanliness. According to Freudian theory, we would expect that Henry fixated in the ? stage, and Hilda fixated in the ? stage.
While ? theorists emphasize the predictable role of environment in causing behavior, ? theorists believe that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models.
social learning
? occurs when new information fits into an existing cognitive structure; ?occurs when new information that does not fit oneÂ’s existing cognitive structures results in change.
The ? focuses on biological bases of social behavior, while BronfenbrennerÂ’s ? looks at the processes and contexts of development.
sociobiological theory
bioecological theory
Research that focuses on "hard" data and numerical or statistical results is referred to as ? research, and research that focuses on “soft” data, such as subjective experiences, feelings, or beliefs is ? research.
A testÂ’s ? refers to whether the test measures what it claims to measure, and its ? refers to whether the results are consistent over time.
The ? variable is the condition in an experiment over which the experimenter has direct control, and the ? variable is the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the variable.
When comparing people of different age groups at the same time, a researcher is using a ? study; if the researcher studied one group of people as they aged over a period of several years, this would be a ? study.
Vygotsky exposed children to certain learning conditions over short periods of time so he could see how much childrenÂ’s performance could be improved within that short time frame. Vygotsky used ? research.

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