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Top 100 Psych People

The Top 100 People for the AP Psychology test

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Mary Ainsworth
early emotional attachment. "strange situation" experiment during attachment testing is a standard
Edward L. Thorndike
Law of Effect - rewarded behavior likely to recur.
Wilhelm Wundt
First psych lab in Leipzig. Measured "atoms of the mind"
Leonard Berkowitz
Aggression: instrumental (getting your way) vs emotional (cathartic) aggression
Julian Rotter
Social Learning Theory and Locus of Control (internal vs external)
William Sheldon
Classified people by body type:endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph
Phineas Gage
1850s guy with a pole shot through his head; personality changed; loss ability to plan
Young and Helmholz
Trichromatic Theory; three distinct photoreceptor cells that detect primary colors
Gustav Fechner
strength of sensation is dependent on the strength of the stimulus
Jean Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development! Schemas (assimilation & accomodation)
David Weschler
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS & WISC) scores for verbal, performance and an overall score.
Carl Jung
believed unconscious has a very powerful influence; also believed in a "collective unconscious."
David Rosenhan
Mental illness experiments -> say crazy, act normal? Ppl think crazy
Alfred Adler
Behavior driven by fear of failure & inferiority (inferiority complex)
Little Albert
Subject used by John Watson to test Classical Conditioning on humans; made fearful of white rabbit
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
5 Stages of Death & Dying (Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance)
Hermann Rorshach
Rorshach Inkblot Test (1921); most widely used projective test
John Watson
Advertiser. Studied animal biology, physiology, and behavior. Humans more complex than animals
Henry Murray
Thematic Apperception Test; also tested prophetic power of dreams.
Susan Blackmore
researched memes and the paranormal
Ivan Pavlov
Classical Conditioning! Associative learning between two stimulus (eg bell & food appearing)
Noam Chomsky
Inborn Universal Grammar; child will naturally learn language as they mature
Hubel/ Wisel
Discovered feature detector cells, cells keyed to specific stimuli, in the brain
Broca's Area
Controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
Karen Horney
Critic of Freud; believed social tensions, not sexual, were most important in childhood
Carol Gilligan
Believes females want to "make connections" to develop identity; alternate moral theory compared to Kohlberg
Harry Harlow
attachment. studied monkeys with artificial mothers; monkeys preferred cloth-covered over nourishing
Carl Rogers
Client-Centered Therapy & unconditional positive regard
Charles Darwin
Theory of Natural Selection (variations occur randomly, but are passed on if they aid in survival)
Stanley Milgram
Obedience! Electrocution study at Yale; tested authority
David McClelland
Achievement motivation need; motives can be distinguished from needs
Gordon Allport
Trait perspective
B.F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning! Expanded on Law of Effect; developed Skinner Box
Lewis Terman
Created and revised Stanford-Binet intelligence test from the mental age theory
Robert Zajonc
Feel emotions before we think; Process fear and anger quickest as survival mechanism. Stress expert
Howard Gardner
Multiple Intelligences; Savant Syndrome shows spectrum of intelligence
Carl Wernicke
Studied aphasia. Found "Wernicke's Area" that decodes meaning of language
Mary Cover Jones
Behavior therapy. Longitudinal studies on life-long development.
Robert Sternberg
g-factor of intelligence
Benjamn Whorf
Linguist. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis = spoken language affects thought
Solomon Asch
Conformity! (line experiment)
Sigmund Freud
Freud belived that we use defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distroting reality.
Francis Galton
early behavior-genetics, including eugenics, and fingerprinting.
Albert Bandura
Reciprocal determinism; Observational learning (Bobo Doll experiment)
Cannon-Bard Theory
An emotion-arousing experience triggers physiological arousal and emotion simultaneously
Stanley Schacter
Two Factor Theory (emotion comes from awareness of body's arousal)
John Garcia
Challenged behaviorists; environmentalism
Ernst Weber
Weber's Law: the change in a stimulus that will be just noticeable is a constant ratio of the original stimulus. It has been shown not to hold for extremes of stimulation
James Lange Theory
experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Clark Hull Drive theory
Internal needs motivate ppl to act a certain way
William James
Wrote Principles of Psychology, one of first textbooks
Erik Erikson
8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Philip Zimbardo
Stanford Prison Experiment to better understand the effects of role play on attitudes and behaviors
Albert Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Research and studied memory. Developed the nonsense syllable or CVC experiement
Martin Seligman
Positive Psychology (+ emotions, + character traits, + institutions); Learned Helplessness
Paul Ekman
Global studies of facial expressions; Facial expressions are universal
Festinger & Carlsmith
Cognitive Dissonance; people that received $1 for a menial task rated it enjoyable to justify to selves
Charles Spearman
Helped develop factor analysis and believed there was a "general intelligence."
Lawrence Kohlberg
3 Stages of Moral Development (preconventional, conventional & post-conventional)
Hans Eysenck
Intelligence is inherited; "g" factor
Kurt Lewin
field theory (behavior is influenced by personal traits and environment) & action field theory for groups
Walter Mischel
Behaviors controlled by the situation, not internal drives. Person-Situation Paradox
Albert Ellis
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Alfred Binet
studied his daughters to understand a wide range of child psychology
Aaron Beck
Cognitive therapist (improve thought patterns)

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