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BCS 110 - Lecture #15 Learning & Memory-Neuropsychology


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Amygdala involved in emotion-if you lose it, you lose this boost of learning you get with strong emotions, events associated with strong emotions are remembered better (epinephrine)
What does the Amygdala do with Long-Term Memory?
Hippocampal lesions in rats affect performance in the radial maze & the morris search task
What is Spatial Memory?
Stores long-term memories that are more than 2 years old, HM--hippocampus was gone, but the cortex was still intact-he had a great memory of anything that happened 2 years prior to the surgery
What is the Cortex's role in Long-Term Memory?
Mild retrograde amnesia (two years prior to the surgery were lost), very severe anterograde amnesia (he cannot learn a new fact--> declarative memory--facts), intact short-term memory, normal IQ, he is still able to learn new skills even though he is unaware of it (procedural memory-skills like skiing & riding a bike), towers of hanoi
What were HM's Symptoms post-surgery?
Seen with Korsakoff's patients, known for making up stories
What is Confabulation?
Declarative & Non-declarative (skills/procedural)
What are the tpyes of Long-Term Memory?
Retrograde & Anterograde Amnesia, problems with recalling temporal order (typical of prefrontal patients)
What types of memory are affected by Korsakoff's Syndrome?
Cannot learn new facts
What is Anterograde Amnesia?
AKA working memory, kind of like RAM in computer, something used for a particular task for about 2 minutes, store information for short term use (1s to 2-3mn); Phonological loop & Visuospatial sketchpad
What is Short-Term Memory?
Long-term memory loss (not short term as claimed in them movie), like many patients-he is aware of his deficit
What type of Memory Deficit does the main character have in Memento?
Who did Classical Conditioning?
Skills like riding a bike & skiing
What is Procedural Memory?
HM had massive episelpsy-had epileptic fits all the time, he had part of the temporal lobes (hippocampus & surrounding cortex) removed on both sides in an attempt to cure epilepsy, removed a piece of cortex, never had epileptic fits after that day but had no way of sotring new memories
Who was HM?
Type of short-term memory, 7+/-2 items
What is a Phonological Loop?
projects to the prefrontal cortex (assoiated with short-term memory)
What does the Dorsomedial Thalamus do?
A patient who had similar epilepsy problems to HM, but due to a virus
Who was RB?
Place cells
What type of cell does the Hippocampus contain?
2 patterns--> well underneath the pattern & has to remember which one has food underneath it
What is a Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample Task?
Is Declarative Memory implicit or explicit?
Reinforcement & punishment
What is Operant Conditioning?
What is Declarative Memory?
Hippocampus + surrounding cortex, PREFRONTAL CORTEX
What areas of the brain are for Short-Term Memory?
Type of short-term memory, 4+/-2 items
What is a Visuospatial Sketchpad?
Hanoi Tower
What is an example of Nonasociative Learning?
Severe lesions in the entorhinal cortex, basal forebrain (acetylcholine) and throughout cortex (due to amyloid deposit), declarative memory most affected (but they can learn new skills), retrograde & anterograde amnesia (unlike HM), many other cognitive functions affected as well, the cortex is affected
What is Alzheimer's Disease?
Two years prior to accident/illness lost
What is Retrograde Amnesia
Entorhinal Parahippocampal Cortex, Hippocampus, Amygdala (plays a role in memory, though minor-mostly involved in control of emotion), Cortex (big role in memory), and Dorsomedial Thalamus
What areas of the brain play a role in Long-Term Memory?
Who did Operant Conditioning?
Hippocampus & surrounding cortex & the cortex/entorhinal parahippocampal cortex, Thalamic Structures (dorsomedial thalamus, dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus), & amygdala
What other areas of the brain play a role in Long-Term Memory?
Is Non-declarative Memory (skills/procedural) implicit or explicit?
Conditioned stimulus (metronome) with unconditioned stimulus (meat)=unconditioned response (salivation), ?=conditioned response (salivation)
What is Classical Conditioning?
Thiamine deficiency (needed to metabolize glucose), seen more in alcoholics, thalamus affected, normal on non-declarative tasks such as word completion tasks, confabulation
What is Korsakoff's Syndrome?

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