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MSA study guide Ch. 11-15


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Which war had PR issues dealing with ethics?
WW1 propaganda was used and raised ethical issues for PR
- propaganda was one sided so Bernays used his book Crystallizing Public Opinion to show that truth (good and bad) should be presented letting the public decide
- he started with propaganda himself and then tried to decide if it was good or bad
Theories of the press
1. Authoritarian (wisest must rule and any/ all opinions to maintain authority)
2. Libertarianism (created by Milton 1644 was the market place of ideas believing in self regulation and no gov. control)
Systems of Social Control
1. Communism (Marx/Lenin/Stalin said to be voice of gov. under Utopian philosophy that said rich gives everything to poor controlling everything)
2. Social Responsibility (1940's says all manner of mass media is responsible to ppl. and there should be truth in adv. developing and reinforcing ethics)
Who coined the term Rock n' Roll?
Alan Freed (DJ from Cleveland playing "race music" R&B played by black artists)
Libel and Slander difference
libel (written) and slander (spoken)
Event that legitimized Rock n' Roll
1956 Elvis appears on Ed Sullivan show
Media Convergence
combination of 2 or more traditional media into one process
First experimental recording
Mary had a little lamb on hand-cranked tinfoil cylinder (phonograph) created by Edison
What can be copyrighted?
literary works
musical works
dramatic works
pantomimes or choreographic works
pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works
motion pics
sounds recordings
Criteria for copyrights
works must be fixed - sufficiently permanent or stable (protects the expression of ideas not just ideas for author's life plus 50 yrs.)
Determination of obscenity according to Miller vs. CA
1. avg. person finds whole work appeal to prurient int.
2. depicts sexual conduct in offensive way
3. lacks serious literary/artistic/political/scientific value
defenses against libel and slander
-Truth (best one)
-Retraction (print can be retracted if false)
- Absence of Malice (prove no intent of ill will)
- Privilege (Gov. proceedings with absolute or qualified)
- Fair comment and criticism
Cultivation Research
research theory that talks about world as it's reported to us not necessarily accurate
- concerns how ppl perceive the world
- George Gerbner often watched , world is more violent
- reader's advocates for newspapers (report how biased, fair, and ethical news organ. is leading audit - checks and balances)
Ethical Standards
1. Golden Mean (Aristotle)
2. Categorical Imperative (Kant)
3. Principle of Unity (John Stewart Mill)
4. Veil of Ignorance (John Rawls)
5. Judeo-Christian Ethic (treat all with respect)
invented internet
Joseph Licklidr
4 (5) questions for moral reasoning
1. Is what I've come up with complete and accurate (what am I missing?
2. How would I feel if this story was about me?
3. What value is there in this story?
4. What does my reader/viewer really need to know?
1st amendment protection for schools
high schools - little or no protection (lots of regulation)

college concerned with Hazelwood (gay club interference) because administrators can take control
What happened in deregulation in broadcast that killed an issue important to politicians?
Fairness Doctrine (al gore wanted airtime to all politicians but stations wouldn't make money)
Characteristics of Libel and Slander
- defamation of character (induce ill opinion)
- identification (recognizable)
- publication (3rd party involved like creator, viewer, and publisher)
- damage (money, reputation, anguish)
- malice (public - malic in law knowingly publishing false material or private - malice in fact ill will and intent)
Qualitative Research methods
- participant observation
- textual analysis (how words are written)
- indepth interviews (focus groups)
Quantitative Research methods
- experiments
- survey research
- content analysis (content of story)
- all us stats
Mass Communication Research deals with ?
systematic study of media content, forces shaping the creation of media, how and why ppl use media, impact of media content and institutions
- basic mass comm. research explain relationship b/w ppl and media
- practical research finds what content and services ppl want
sprial of silence (stifling decent)
- media can stifle dissent by not letting ppl who disagree be heard (Berlin Wall) creating a silent majority (same thing as shouting someone down who disagrees)
early computer languages
- IBM released FORTRAN in 1955
- Grace Hopper wrote COBOL
early recording devices
-phonographe (edison tinfoil cylinder)
- graphophone (Chichester Bell improved with wax cylinder)
- Emile Berliner invented flat disc called Gramophone (way to duplicate discs)
later recording devices
- columbia with 33 1/3 (long playing for operas and musicals)
- RCA with 45 Rpms singles for pop music
1st to record and sell music
elvis with hound dog
- eric clapton
- beatles then beach boys then bob dylan
Scott Joplin
father of ragtime
invented electric guitar
Les Paul
1st song to top charts
Bill Haley and comets rock around the clock
early computers
ancient abacus
looms (patterns fabric)
John Astanafoff in process of making comp. during WW2
Colossus - British during WW2
Vannevar Bush desktop idea (memex)
electric numerical intergrator and computer
- 14 ft. tall and 80 ft. long and 30 tons
- used to help build hydrogen bomb
1st Mainframe comp.
Ivan Sutherland with his sktechpad idea
Micro Comp
Intel 4004 with silicon chip
MITS Altair 8800
1st personal comp. sold 40 lbs inspired by Paul Allen and Bill Gates

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