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PSY 101 final


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A legal term only a person may have a mental disorder and yet be considered sane by court.
Mental Disorder
Any behavior or emotional state that causes a person great suffering, is self-destructive, seriously impairs the persons ability to work or get along with others, or endangers others or the community. It can be a violation of cultural standers, emotional distress, behavior that is self destructive or harmful to others. nearly 1/2 americans will have some mental disorder in their life
Diagonistic and statistical mannual of mental disorders. To provide clear diagnositc categories so that clinicains and researchers can agree on which disorders they are talking about and can then study and treat these disorders. It lists symptoms, gives infor about typical age, prediposing factors, course of the disorder, prevatlence of the disorder, sex ratio of those affected, and cultural issues that might affect diagnosis. 1st ed. 100 disorders, 2nd ed. 400 disorders
Projective tests
consist of ambiguous pictures, sentences, or stories that the test takers interprets or completes. such as draw a pictures or finish sentences
Rorschach inkblot test
devised by swiss psych hermann roschacch. Ten cards with symmetrical abstract patterns, originally formed by spilling ink on paper and folding the paper in hallf. They report what they see and a clinician interprets the answers to symposiblic meaning.
objective tests
standardize questionaires that ask about the test takers behavior and feelings. The assess specific emotional problems
Minnestota mutiphaisc personality inventory(MMPI)
organizewd into 10 categories or scales covering such problems as depression, paranoia, schizophrenia, and introversion. more reliable and more valid than either projective methods or subjective clinicians. Significant rate of false postivies of no abnormality.
Generalized anxiety disorder
continuous uncontrollable anxiety, a feeling of foreboding and dread that occurs on a majority of days during a 6 month period and that is not brought on by physical causes such as disease, drugs, or drinking too much coffee.
An anxiety disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or life-threatening event has symptoms such as psychic numbing, reliving of the trauma, and increased physiological arousal. out of 60% who experience an event only 8%men and 20%women have PSTD.
Panic disorders

a person has recurring attacks of intense fear or panic, often with feelings of impending doom or death. may last a few min to several hours. same symptoms as anxeity. occur aftermath of stress prolongder emotion and specific worries or frightening experiences.
Am exaggerated fear or a specifc situation, activity or thing. Fear of snakes, inscects heights.
chacterized by recurrent, persistent, unwished, for thoughts or images or by reptetive retutalized stereotyped behaviors that the person feels must be carreited out to avoid disaster. they have no control over them. the prefrontal cortex is depleted of serotonic. several parts of the brain are hyperactive
mood disorder
include disturbances in mood ranging from extreme depression to exerme mania.
Major depression
a serious mood disorder that involved emotional, behavioral cognitive and physical changes severe enough to disrupt a persons ordinary functioning. feel disparing and hopeless, often think of death or suicide.
an abonormally high state of exhilaration. excessively wired. get into trouble with spending sprees.
Bipolar disorder
A mood disorder in which episosed of both depression and mania occur. occurs equally in both sexes. many artists, musicians, and scientists suffer from this disorder
personality disorders
involves unchanging, maladaptive traits that cause great distress or an inability to get along with others. not cuased by medical conditions, stress, or situations that temporatilty induce a person to behave in ways that are out of character.
narcssistic personality disorder
involves exaggerated sense of self-importance and self-absorption.
antisocial personality disorder
a disorder chancarcterized by antisocial behavior such as lying, stealing, manipulation othes, and sometimes violence and lack of guilt shame and empathy. repeatedly break the law, seek quick thrills, get into physical fights. causes: abnormalities in central nervous system, impaired frontal-lobe functions, genetic influences.
dissociative identtiy diorder
a controversail disorder marked byu the apparent apperacne within one person of 2 or more distinct personalityies each with its own name and traits commonly known as mutilple personality disorder.
one person emerges to handle everyday experiences, another personality to cope with the bad ones.
a psychic disorder marked by delusions hallucinations disorganzied and incoherent speech inappropritate behavior and cofnitive. symptoms: bizarre delusions, hallucinations, disorganized incoherent speech, grossly disorganized, impaired cofnitive ability.
a mental condition that involves disorted perceptions of reality and an inablity to function in most aspects of life.
Antiphyschotic drugs
drugs used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorder. they are designed to block or reduce the sensitivity of brain receptors that respons to dopamine. recude agitation, delusions and hallucinacions.
anti depressant drugs
treatment of depression, anziety, phobias, and OCD. they are nonaddictive but can produce some unpleaseant physical reactions.
placebo effect
the apparent success of a medication or treatmetn that id due to the patients expectations or hopes rather than to the drug or treatment itself. ensures that many people will respons positively to a new drug just because of enthusiasm surrounding it and their own expecations that the drug will make them feel better.
therapeutic window
the amount that is enough but not too much.
surgery designed to destory selected areas of the brain thought to be responsible for emeotional disorders or distrubed behavior. invented in 1935.
shock therapy that is used for the treatment of secere depression alotho no one knows how or why it works. an electrode is placed on one side of head and a breif current is turned on. the triggers a seizure that typically last one min causeing the body to convulse.
patients talk not about immediate problems but about their dreams and memories about childhood.
free association
the process of saying freely whatever comes to mind in connection with dreams, memories, fantasies or conflicts. "person lying on a couch" no rush to solve problem.
psychodynmaic therapies
share the goal of exploring the unconscious dyanmics of personality such as defenses and conflicts. depth therapies because goal is to delve into the deep unconscious processes believes to be the source of patients problems rather than to concentrate on superficial sympotoms and conscious beliefs
the clients trasfer of emotional elements of his or her inner life usually feelings about clients parents outward onto the analyst.
behavior therapy
based on applied behavioral analysis-the application of techniques dervied from the behavioral principles of classical and operant conditions.
gradual exposure
a method in which a person suffereing from an anciety disorder, ios gradually confronted with the feared object or situation until the anxiety subsides.
therapist takes the client diretly into the feared situation and remains there until the clients panic andanciety decline
systematic desenitization
a step by step process of desensitizing a client to a feared ob ject or experience it is based on the classical conditioning procedure of counterconditiong.
skills training
am effort to teach the client skills that he or she may lack as well as new contructive behaviors to replace self defeating ones. ex-role modeling
cognitive therapy
designed to identifyu and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking an dhence to reduce negative emotions and their behavioral consequences. helps clients identify the beliefs and expectations that might be unneccessarily prolong theri anger, fear depression conflicts and other problems
rational emotive therapy
designed to challene the clients unrealistic or irrational thoughts.
humanist therapy
form of psychotherapy based on the philosophy of humanism which emphasizes peroples free will to change no past conflicts. people seek self-actualization and self-fulfillment.
client-centered therapy
therapists role is to listen to clients needs in an accepting nonjudgemental way and offer what rogers called unconditional postice regard.
family-systems perspective
recognizes that peoples behavior in a family is as interconnected as that of two dancers. clients learn that if they change in any way, even for better their families may protest noisily or may sendsubtle messages that read change back.
couples therapy
designed to help couples understand and resolve the inevitable conflicts that occur in all relationships
inegrative approach to psychotherapy
drawing methods and ideas from various schools and avoiding strong allegiances to any one theory. treat with what method works.
therapeutic alliance
bond of confidence and mutual understanding established between therapist and client which allows them to work together to solve the clients problems.
inferred process within a person or animal which cuases that organism to move toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation
intrinsic motivation
enjoyment of an activity for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
pursuit of a goal for external rewards. such as money or fame
passionate love
whirlwind of intense emotions and secual passion
compassionate love
affection and trust
hormone that plays a crucial role in the attachment caregiving system influencing feelins and expressions of love, caring and trust not only between mothers and babies but between friends and lovers
the people nearest to you are most likely to be dearest to you too.
in looks attitudes beliefs values personality and interests is 2nd key predictor of whom we love
attatchment theory of love
peoples attachment styles as adults derive in large part from how their parents cared for them.
gender roles
collections of rules that determine the proper attitudes and behavior for men and women, sucual and otherwise
sexual scripts
sets of implicits rules that specify proper sexual behavior for a person in a given situation varying with the persons gender age religion social status and peer group.
set point
the weight you stay at when you are not trying to hain or lose. can very about 10% in either direction
basal metabolic rate
the rate at which the body burns calories for energy and a fixed number of fat cells which store fat for energy and tus can change in size.
the person binges and then purges by inducing vomitting or using laxatives
the person eats hardly anything and therfore becomes dangerously thin; anorexics have severely distorted body images thinking they are fat when they are emaciated.
industrial/organizational psychology
meausred the psychological qualities that spur achievement and success and also the enviornmental conditions that influence productivity and satisfaction
need for achievement
a learned motive to meet personal standards of success and excellence in a chosen area.
approach goals
postivie experiences that you seek directly such as learning to suba dive or trying to get a better grade
avoidance goals
involve the effort to avoid unpleaseant experiences such as trying not to make a fool of yourself at patries or trying to avoid being dependent.
performance goals
concerned with primarily being judged favorably and avoiding criticim-goals framed in terms of performing well in front of others being judged favorably and avoiding criticism.
mastery(learning) goals
concerned with increasing their competence and skills and finding intrinsic pleasure in what they are learing
self-fullfilling prophecy
an expectation that is fullfiled because of tendency of the person holding it ot act in ways that bring it about
a persons belief that he or she is capable of producing desired results such as mastering new skills and reaching goals
approach approach conflict
occurs when you are equally attracted to two or more posible activies or goals
avoidance avoidance conflice
require you to choose between the lesser of two evils because you dislike both alternatives
approach avoidacne conflice
occur when a single activity or goal has both a postive and a negative aspect
maslows hiercarchy of nees
pyramid-bottom is basic survival needs for food sleep and water and next level were security needs for shelter and saftey and third level were social needs for belongin and affection and forth level were esteem needs for self respect and respect of others and top were needs for self actualization and self transedence

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