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Marketing Test Review

Review for Marketing Test 1


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affect the buying decision, usually by helping define the specifications for what is bought.
Aspiration group
one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with, such as a professional society.
Physical surroundings
décor, music, and crowding in retail stores
Routine problem solving
for products such as table salt and milk, consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives.
Selective comprehension
interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs.
Limited problem solving
consumers seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives
Actual self
how people actually see themselves
Supply partnership
buyer and its supplier adopt mutually beneficial objectives, policies, and procedures for the purpose of lowering the cost or increasing the value of products and services delivered to the ultimate consumer.
behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning
Derived demand
the demand for industrial products and services is driven by demand for consumer products and services.
a need that moves an individual to action
Personal needs
include the need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect
Stimulus generalization
occurs when a response elicited by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus.
the analysis of consumer lifestyles. Combining psychology, lifestyle, and demographics
Situational Influences
when the purchase situations affects the purchase decision process.
Social needs
concerned with love and friendship
Consideration set
the group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware.
Social class
the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior can be grouped.
Selective retention
consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, event minutes after exposure to it.
Market-dominating sources
such as information from sellers that include advertising, company websites, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores
the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.
Subliminal perception
you see or hear messages without being aware of them.
Purchase task
the reason for engaging in a decision in the first place
Dissociative group
one that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors.
Perceived risk
the anxieties felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes that there may be negative consequences.
Cognitive dissonance
The feeling of post purchase psychological tension or anxiety
Antecedent states
the consumer's mood or the amount of cash on hand
Post purchase behavior
when the consumer compares the product with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied.
subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes.
Public sources
includes various product-rating organizations such as Consumer Reports, government agencies, and TV "consumer programs"
Value analysis
a systematic appraisal of the design, quality, and performance of a product to reduce purchasing costs.
Aspects of personal influence important to marketing
opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity
Traditional auction
a seller puts an item up for sale and would-be buyers are invited to big in competition with each other
Membership group
one to which a person actually belongs, including fraternities and sororities, social clubs, and the family.
Subjective attributes
the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need
control the flow of information in the buying center.
Internal search
scanning your memory for previous experiences with products or brands
Cognitive learning
making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjusting your own accordingly
Organizational buyers
manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and government agencies that buy goods and services for their own use or for resale
influencing people during conversations
the people in the organization who actually use the product or service
Spouse-dominant decisions
either the husband or the wife is responsible
Evaluative criteria
represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones you use to compare different products and brands.
New buy
the organization is a first-time buyer of the product or service
Organizational buying behavior
the decision-making process that organizations use to establish the need for products and services and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers.
Temporal effects
time of day or the amount of time available
a person's consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
provides common industry definitions for Canada, Mexico, and the United States, which makes easier the measurement of economic activity in the three member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Make-buy decision
an evaluation of whether components and assemblies will be purchased from outside suppliers or built by the company itself.
a consumer's subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes
a stimulus or symbol perceived by customers
the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer.
Consumer socialization
the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers
Physiological needs
basic to survival and must be satisfied first
Extended problem solving
each of the 5 stages of the consumer purchase decision process is used
ISO 9000
standards for registration and certification of a manufacturer's quality management and assurance system based on an on-site audit of practices and procedures.
Straight rebuy
the buyer or purchasing manager reorders an existing product or service from the list of acceptable suppliers, probably without even checking with users or influencers from the engineering, production, or quality control departments.
Self-actualization needs
involve personal fulfillment
Social surroundings
includes the other people present when a purchase decision is made
Modified rebuy
the users, influencers, or deciders in the buying center want to change the product specifications, price, delivery schedule, or supplier
National character
a distinct set of personality characteristics common among people of a country or society
Purchase decision process
problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, post purchase behavior
learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way
Reference groups
people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self appraisal or as a source of personal standards.
Stimulus discrimination
a person's ability to perceive differences in stimuli
Organizational buying criteria
the objective attributes of the supplier's products and services and the capabilities of the supplier itself.
Consumer behavior
the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions.
the action taken by a consumer to satisfy the drive
Reverse auction
a buyer communicates a need for a product or service and would-be suppliers are invited to big in competition with each other.
have the formal authority and responsibility to select the supplier and negotiate the terms of the contract.
Reverse marketing
transform buying criteria into specific requirements that are communicated to prospective buyers.
Government units
federal, state, and local agencies that buy goods and services for the constituents they serve
Selective exposure
when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent
Family life cycle
the distinct phases that a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.
Opinion leaders
individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others
have the formal or informal power to select or approve the supplier that receives the contract.
Bidder's list
a list of firms believed to be qualified to supply a given item
Problem recognition
the initial stage in the purchase decision, is perceiving a difference between a person's ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision.
online trading communities that bring together buyers and supplier organizations.
Personal sources
relatives, friends whom the consumer trusts
Business marketing
marketing of goods and services to companies, governments, or not-for-profit organizations for use in the creation of goods and services that they can produce and market to others
Brand loyalty
a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time
reduces the inventory of production parts to those to be used within hours or days
Buying center
the group of people in an organization who participate in the buying process and share common goals, risks, and knowledge important to a purchase decision.
mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them.
Industrial firms
reprocess a product or service they buy before selling it again to the next buyer.
Joint decision-making style
most decisions are made by both husband and wife
Safety needs
involve self-preservation and physical wellbeing
Selective perception
a filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention
the reward
Buying committee
a highly formalized buying center
The ideal self
how people would like to see themselves
wholesalers and retailers that buy physical products and resell them again without any reprocessing
Behavioral learning
the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it
the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them
Objective attributes
locate speed
Buy classes
consists of three types of organizational buying situations: straight rebuy, new buy, and modified rebuy

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