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history 202 prof. irwin


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Sherman Antitrust
act source of all american anti monopoly laws. Law forbids every contract, scheme, deal and conspiracy to restrain trade. Also forbids conspiracies to secure monopoly of a given industry. It was an early attempt to try to control abuses by large combinations of businesses called trusts.
Horizontal Integration
When a company expands its business into different products that are similar to current lines
Baby Boom
the larger than expected generation in the U.S. born shortly after WWII
Harlem Renaissance
period in 1920s when African American achievemtns in art and music and literature flourished
Eugene V. Debs
american union leader, founding father of international labor union and IWW, as well as a candidate for president as a member of the socialist party
an independent agency of the U.S. gove responsible for aviation and space flight
populist party
people's party. a former politcal party in the U.S. formed to advocate currency expansion and state control of railroads
Voting Rights Act
federal law prohibiting discrimination in voting practices on the basis of race or language groupe
Truman Doctrine
established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey. pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism
Interstate Highway Act
1956 law initiated by Truman that authorized 41,000 miles of highways to be built
bull moose party
roosevelt's campaign party's name while he was running for a third term
Anti-Saloon League
leading organization lobbying for prohibition in the U.S. Was key component of the progressive movement. Strongest in South and rural north.
Annexation of Hawaii
extended U.S. territory into the Pacific. Consequently, U.S. rose as a Pacific power
Manhatten Project
code name for U.S. and British development fo the first atomic bomb; began in Los Alamos, New Mexico
Intra-Contra Affair
politcal scandal during Reagan administration in whhich members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages, without direct consent of president Reagn
main suffrage organizations in the U.S. during the 19th century. They pursued the right to vote in different ways (National American Woman Suffrage Association)
young woman in 1930s who defied social and moral conventions most noticeably by hair and clothing style
freed slave or poor white that owned no land after civil war. Agrees to work a parcel of land owned by someone else with the rent in form of a share of the crop at harvest time.
suburbanites considred as a cultural class or subculture
Hull House
Jane Admans founded it in Chicago. A center that allowed foreigners and poor to have access to classes that would teach them things they couldn't lean about because of their status
Brown v. Board of Education
declared that state laws established seperate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunites
Containment Policy
refers to foreign policy strategy of the U.S. in early years of Cold War. Policy was to stop what is called the domino effect of nations moving politcally towards Soviet Union based communism
unscruplously accusing people of disloyality (as by saying they were communist)
Panama Canal
ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus and Panama built by the U.S.
Marshall Plan
U.S. program of econmic aid for the reconstruction of Europe. Named after George Marshall
National Association fo the Advancement of Colored People
The Grange
became during a time of despair in rural areas. to improve farming, agriculture and way of life. It was also the first organization to allow women to hold office and vote as equal members.
group of people opposing America's role in the Vietnam war. believed in being equal, and everyone having the same things. believed in universal love and peace
period marked by distinctive character or reckoned from a fixed point or event
Roosevelt Corollary
extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted the right of the U.S. to intervene to stabalize the economic affairs of small nations in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts
Great Depression
economic slump in North America, Europe and other industrialized areas of the world. Begun 1929, longest and most severe depression experience in Western world
19th Amendment
womens right to vote
assumes that goverments and social welfare can be imporved through the application of scientific methods and the good intentions and training of public servants
22nd Amendment
stated that a president can only serve two terms
Meat Inspection Act
federal law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to inspect and condemn any meat product foudn unfit for human consumption in 1906
Sandra Day O'Connor
first woman to serve on the Supreme Court
Tet Offensive
North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces launched a series of attacks in South Vietnam, seen by many as the turning point in the Vietnam War
William M. Tweed
most famous of political bosses who controlled large american cities during Gilded Age. Built power manily on votes of poor immigrants who needed small favors
New Left
movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that adopted a broader definition of political activism called social activism
first artificial Earth satellite, launched in Moscow, sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. led to creation of NASA and the space race
Block Power
movement amongs African American to consolidate power and build their own political and cultureal institutions
one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged in April of 1960 from student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina. (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
african americans that fled the south for Kansas bc of racial oppression & rumors of reinstitution of slavery led many freedmen skeeing for a new place to live
Environmental Protection Agency
independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
William Jennings Bryant
ran for president three times, secretary of state under Woodrow Wilson, was in scopes trial
law forbidding the sale of alcholic beverages
robber barons
Freewheeling, innovative, and sometimes ruthless entrepreneurs of the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Accused by many at the time (and some today) of plundering resources and other companies, they're now seen in a more favorable light.
Alfred T. Mahan
believed the navy was the most powerful of armed forces
City Boss
political figure during Gilded Age serves as mayor, controls access to city jobs, business licenses, influences courts, municipal agencies, paid by businesses, get voters' loyalty, extend influence
John D. Rocketfeller
businessman who started the Standard Oil trust, used it to gain control over most of nation's oil business during Gilded Age
New Deal
Roosevelts sequence of programs and promises he initiated btwn 1933 and 1928 with the goal of giving relief to the poor, reform of the financial system, and recovery of the economy during the great depression
Moral Majority
organization made up of conservative Christian political action committees which campaigned on issues of maintaining Christian conception of moral law
Old Immigrants
someone that came to the U.S. from Northern or Western Europe during the first wave of immigration in the history of the independent U.S.
Marcus Garvey
National Hero of Jamaica, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, founder of Negro Improvement Association and African Communities Leauge
Franklin D. Roosevelt
known for getting the U.S. out of the Great Depression thought implementation of New Deal, lead country through WWII. Part of the United Nations
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's publication of fourteen reasons why the war needed to end
Mann Act
prohibits tha transport of women for prostitution or immoral purposes
American Federation of Labor
most famous of labor unions that grew in the Gilded Age to fight for better pay and conditions for factory workers
Martin Luther King, Jr.
preacher who fought to get blacks their rights. later assassinated bc of his views
Black Panthers
African American organization established to promote civil rights and self-defense that started in California by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale
Thomas Edison
famous inventor who created electric light bulb, phonograph, and movie projector. Creator of Scientific Capitalism, recvolutionized working industry
Roe v. Wade
supreme court case regarding abortion. most laws against abortion in the U.S. violated a constitutional right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the 14th amendment
great society
wide range of social programs that Pres. Johnson envisioned as improving quality life in the U.S. Primary issues were health care, poverty relief, education, arts, culture, cities, natural beauty, preservation, crime prevention, and civil rights
Politics of Identity
political action to advance the interests of members of a group of supposed to be oppressed by virtue of a shared and marginalized identity such as race, ethnictiy, religion, sexual orientation, and gender
Vertical Integration
Production of different stages of processing of a product within the same firm.
Cesar Chavez
U.S. labor leader who organized farm workers
peace corps
civilian organzation sponsered by the U.S. gov. helps people in developing countries
Western allies launched biggest sea-borne invasion in history against the Nazis in France. Opened a second European fighting front to relieve the Soviets
League of Nations
international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations. Dissolved in 1946 after the U.S. was formed
Spanish-American War
war fought in 1898 to help Cuba gain it's independence from Spain
first treaty between the U.S. and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Stratgeic Arms Limitation Talks
National Origins Act
A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. The policy stayed in effect until the 1960s.
Rough Riders
member of the volunteer cavalry regiment led by Theodore Roosevelt in the Spanish-American War
stock market crash
steep fall in prices of stocks due to financial panic. caused stock prices to fall , people lost entire life savings as many financial institutions went bankrupt
organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality (Congress of Racial Equality)

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