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US History Test 3

Terms

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Non-Intercourse Act
In the last days of President Thomas Jefferson's presidency, the United States Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the almost unenforceable Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809. This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. The intent was to damage the economies of the United Kingdom and France. Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly ineffective. Significance: It contributed to the coming war of 1812 and seriously damaged the US economy.
Burr Conspiracies
A group of planters, politicians and army officers led by Aaron Burr. He was accused of trying to create an independent nation in the center of North America and/or the Southwest and parts of Mexico. Significance: After being found guilty of conspiracy, he was put to trial, however, was acquitted due to lack of evidence.
Major Ridge and John Ross
1835 Ridge signs treaty w/ govt. giving up eastern land; Ross is asked to sign but refuses; Ridge party and 6,000 cherokkes leave eastern lands more than 16,000 refuse to comply
On to Canada
Upon declaring against the British, the War Hawks' made their slogan "On to Canada!" a reality. With forces outnumbering the British almost 35 to 1, they expected a quick and easy victory
Pasha of Tripoli
a North African leader who fought an undeclared war with the United States from 1801 to 1805. Significance: His aggression forced the pacifist Jefferson to reluctantly dispatch the infant navy to the shores of Tripoli. Jefferson succeeded in extorting a treaty of peace from the Pasha in 1805.
Cadore Letter
letter sent by Napolean opens trade with America for France, the embargo resumes against England.
Sacagawea
A Shoshone woman who accompanied Lewis and Clark in the Lewis and Clark expedition of Western United States. Significance: She served as an interpreter for the group and often helped prevent fights between the Indians and the group.
Embargo Act
Law passed by Congress and signed by President Thomas Jefferson in 1807. This law stopped all trade between America and any other country. The goal was to get Britain and France, who were fighting each other at the time, to stop restricting American trade. The Act backfired, and the American people suffered. The Act was ended in 1809. Significance: This act was one of the events that lead to the war of 1812. Was later replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act. It increased the unpopularity of Jefferson and led to the revival of the Federalist party.
South Carolina Exposition
written in secret by Calhoun who borrowed heavily from KY and VA resolutions, making then valid; widens rift btwn Calhoun and Jackson by a lot
Cumberland Road
A national road that stretched from Maryland to Illinois. It was the first national/interstate highway, and it was a milestone for the eventual connection of all the states by highways, thus increasing trade.
Toussaint l' Ouverture
A self-educated slave and military genius. L'Ouverture was finally betrayed by the French, who imprisoned him in a chilly dungeon in France, where he coughed his life away. Significance: Indirectly, he did much to set up the sale of Louisiana to the United States.
"Revolution of 1800"
The Revolution of 1800 was so named by the winner of the 1800 election, Thomas Jefferson. He called this election a revolution because his party, the Republicans, peacefully and orderly received the power with nothing but acceptance by the federalists. This was how the founding fathers designed the government to be. Significance: The Revolution of 1800 was monumental in the development of the United States as a nation. It proved to other nations that the republican experiment began by the revolutionary seed of independence could not only thrive, but succeed.
John C Calhoun
political philosopher from south carolina. Advocate for states rights, limited gvt and nullification. 1st vp that was a US citizen, 7th vp under adams and jackson. served as a house of rep secretary of war and state.
Divorce Bill
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the governemtn could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
2nd National Bank
As a Republican, Jefferson opposed the National Bank. The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.
Aaron Burr
An American politician and revolutionary hero who serves as the third vice-president of the United States under Jefferson. Significance: He squared off against Hamilton and mortally wounded him in a duel that took place in 1804.
Quids
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Marbury vs. Madison
Marbury v. Madison, case decided in 1803 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall held that, although Marbury was entitled to the commission, the statute that was the basis of the particular remedy sought was unconstitutional because it gave the Supreme Court authority that was implicitly denied it by the U.S. Constitution. Significance: The decision was the first by the Supreme Court to declare unconstitutional and void an act passed by Congress that the Court considered in violation of the Constitution. The decision established the doctrine of judicial review, which recognizes the authority of courts to declare statutes unconstitutional.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
provided for a gradual lowering of duties and the Force Bill which authorized the president to use arms to collect customs duties in S. Carolina. sig. Jackson would do wat he had to keep SC in U.S.
John Marshall Court Cases
john marshall (chief of justice of the supreme court) ruled in favor of central government and property rights/against states rights.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
John Randolph/ Quids
a leader in Congress from Virginia and spokesman for the "Old Republican" or "Quids" faction of the Democratic-Republican Party that wanted to restrict the federal government's roles. Significance:
Tippecanoe and Tyler too
"Tippecanoe and Tyler too", originally published as "Tip and Ty", was a very popular and influential campaign song of the colorful Log Cabin Campaign in the 1840 United States presidential election. Its lyrics sung the praises of Whig candidates William Henry Harrison (the "hero of Tippecanoe") and John Tyler, while denigrating incumbent Democrat Martin Van Buren.
Judicial Review
Judicial review is the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm. Significance: John Marshall promoted this idea of 'Judicial Review' in the Marbury vs. Madison case in order to slap at the Jeffersonians.
Hartford Convention
Secret meeting of Federalist Party delegates from New England states who opposed the War of 1812. It adopted a strong states'-rights position in opposition to the mercantile policies of Pres. James Madison and the Embargo Act of 1807 and other measures that prohibited trade with Britain and France. Significance: News of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814, which ended the war, discredited the nascent separatist movement at the convention and weakened Federalist influence.
Nullification Crisis
southerners favored freedom ot trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Henry Clay- American System
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Worcester v. State of Georgia
a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that Cherokee Native Americans were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty. It is considered one of the most influential decisions in law dealing with Native Americans.
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Peggy Eaton/ Petticoat War
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William Crawford
was Sec. of Treasury under James Monroe Presidency; and a canidate for Presidency in 1824 he represented the south in this election
James Wilkinson
a U.S. soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies. He served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, but was compelled to resign—twice. He was appointed governor of the Louisiana Territory in 1805[1] and commanded two unsuccessful campaigns in the St. Lawrence theatre during the War of 1812. Significance: He allied with Aaron Burr and planned to separate the Western U.S from the Eastern United States. When he found out that Jefferson was informed of the plot he betrayed Burr and fled to New Orleans.
Macon's Bill No. 2
Became law in 1810 and was intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. The law lifted all embargoes with Britain or France. If either one of the two countries stopped attacks upon American shipping, the United States would cease trade with the other, unless that country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well. Napolean immediately agreed to the offer whereas the British did not. Hence, the embargo against Britain remained. Significance: Increased the rivalry between the United States and Britain and was one of the leading events to the War of 1812.
Whigs
Members of the Whig Party that lasted from 1834 to 1860, formed to oppose the policies of President Andrew Jackson,Significance: The creation of the party signified the end of one party rule. Whigs backed the American system.
Charles Pinckney
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Jackson's Bank War
Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States during the early years of his presidency. However, the First Bank of the United States first influenced by Alexander Hamilton in 1791 was the origin of the Bank War controversy. However, in 1832 Andrew Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Second Bank of the United State's charter. Significance: Jackson viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly since it was a private institution managed by a board of directors.
Convention of 1818
Britain and the United States agreed to the 49th parallel as the northern boundary of the Louisiana Territory between Lake of the Woods and the Rocky Mountains. The two nations also agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon country for ten years.
Spoils System
System in which incoming political parties throw out former government workers and replace them with their own friends
sectionalism
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
Common man politics
Where the politicians would be expressed as common folk that drink common drinks and lived in common homes; idea of appealing to the masses
National/ Democratic Republicans
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Battles of Horshoe Bend/ New Orleans
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend was fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War. Significance: This victory gave Jackson the popularity that helped him win the elections of 1828.
Tallmadge Amendment
When Missouri applied for statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave or free state. Admitted Missouri's existing slave population, but forbid the introduction of additional slaves. Admitted Missouri as a slave state but forbid slavery north of the 36°30" latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region
Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them.
Maysville Road Veto
fedral founding of cumberland Rd. extension in KY; passed through Congress; Vetoed by Jackson Sig. shows fedralism, presidential powers, checks and balance or abuse of power
Impressment
A crude form of conscription that the British had employed over four centuries. Britain impressed some six thousand U.S. citizens from 1808 to 1811. A number of these luckless souls died or were killed in His Majesty's service. Significant: This practice of Britain deeply infuriated the Americans and was a cause of the War of 1812 between the two countries.
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Martin Van Buren
Jackson's vice-president during his second term; 8th president of the United States
Chesapeake Incident
An Incident that took place in 1807 off the coast of Virginia. A royal frigate overhauled a U.S frigate and demanded the surrender of four alleged deserters. The American commander refused the request. The British warship thereupon fired three devastating broadsides at close range killing three Americans and wounding eighteen. Significance: This incident aggravated the Americans and raised tension between the two countries. It also was a major event leading to the war of 1812.
Nationalism
Feeling or intense pride for ones country
Talleyrand
the French foreign minister, whom which three American dipolmats seek to reach an agreement with, they are stopped by the French X, Y, and Z dipolmats and are asked for a bribe to speak with Talleyrand. Causes XYZ affair.
Lancaster Turnpike/Cumberland Road
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log cabins and hard cider
symbol for the Whig's campaign, tried to make themselves seem like common men. impact: importance of the "common man", and two-party system was cemented in politics.
Specie Circular
In 1836 Jackson issued a proclamation which provided that after Aug. 15 only specie was to be accepted in payment for public lands. He hoped that the Specie Circular would reverse the damaging effects of the Deposit Act of 1836.
War Hawks/ Clay and Grundy
The War Hawks in the Twelfth Congress were mostly young Democratic-Republicans who had been imbued with the ideals of the American Revolution as youths, and were primarily from southern and western states. The War Hawks advocated going to war against Britain for a variety of reasons, mostly related to the interference of the Royal Navy in American shipping, which the War Hawks believed hurt the American economy and injured American prestige. War Hawks from the western states also believed that the British were instigating American Indians on the frontier to attack American settlements, and so the War Hawks called for an invasion of British Canada to punish Britain and end this threat. Henry Clay (speaker of the house) and Felix Grundy were notable Warhawks. Significance: These Warhawks were responsible for forcing the Congress to go to war with Britain.
INDIAN REMOVAL ACT
US CONGRESS PASSED IN 1830 TO TRADE LAND IN EAST FOR RESERVATION LAND IN WEST WITH THE INDIANS, ORIGINALLY VOLUNTARY, THEN FORCED BY PRESIDENT JACKSON
The Alamo
Santa Anna led a large army into Texas, where the American setters tried to defend in squabbling factions, but Mexican forces annihilated the American Garrison at the Alamo mission in San Antonio after the famous, yet futile, group of Texas "patriots" tried to fight back.
Executive Privilege
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Tecumseh
Shawnee leader who attempted in organize an Amerindian confederacy to prevent the loss of additional territory to American settlers. He became an ally of the British in War of 1812 and died in battle.
Oliver Perry
an officer in the United States Navy. He served in the War of 1812 against Britain and earned the nickname "Hero of Lake Erie" for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie. Significance: His battle report to William Henry Harrison after victory is famous: "We have met the enemy and they are ours; two ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop".
Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
William Henry Harrison
an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. Gained national fame for successfully leading U.S. forces against American Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Significance: The oldest President elected until Ronald Reagan in 1980, Harrison had served 30 days in office, still the shortest tenure in United States presidential history, before his death in April 1841.
William Marbury
one of the famous "Midnight Judges". Due to President John Adams's work in the night before he was to leave office, Marbury was to be appointed a Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia. Significance, When Marbury tried to take office as one of these judges, he was blocked by Madison. Marbury immediately sued leading to the landmark case Marbury vs. Madison
1824 Election/ "Corrupt Bargain"
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"Mosquito Fleet"
A term used to describe the United States Navy's fleet of small gunboats, leading up to and during the War of 1812. Significance: Jefferson advocated the construction of two hundred of these tiny vessels in ship yards as he thought the frail vessels would prove valuable in guarding American shores.
Florida Purchase Treaty
In 1819 Spain ceded Florida and other claims to Oregon in exchange for Texas. This gave land to Mexico but later caused Americans to fight against Mexicans for their old land.
John Marshall
Was the fourth Chief Justice of the U.S Supreme Court. During his term as chief justice the federal powers of the judicial branch were defined and strengthened. Significance: The famous Marbury vs. Madison case took place during his term. In the case, Marshall asserted the power of the court to overturn legislation deemed unconstitutional.
"We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans"
A proclamation made by Thomas Jefferson during his inaugural speech in 1801. Significance: By saying this he wanted to highlight his non-partisanship.
Essex Junto
The Essex Junto was a group of lawyers and merchants from Essex County, Massachusetts. These Federalists supported Alexander Hamilton and the Massachusetts radicals. Significance: They supported the Hartford Convention's disaffection with the War of 1812 and proposed secession of New England.
Kitchen Cabinet
a group of unofficial advisers to Andrew Jackson who met with him in the WHite House kitchen
Albert Gallatin
He was Jefferson's secretary. Jefferson and Gallatin believed that to pay the interest on debt, there would have to be taxes. Taxes would suck money from industrious farmers and put it in the hands of wealthy creditors.
Lewis and Clark
Lewis (Jefferson's personal secretary) and Clark (army officer) were sent by Jefferson to explore the Northern part of Louisana. Significance: Lewis and Clark's expedition yielded important scientific observations, maps, knowledge of Indians in the region and hair-raising wild adventure stories.
Treaty of Ghent
signed in 1814; was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The treaty largely restored relations between the two countries to status quo ante bellum.
Harrison Gray Otis
He practiced law in Boston, and was elected (1795) to the Massachusetts legislature. A staunch Federalist, he served (1797-1801) in Congress and was again a member of the state legislature from 1802 to 1817. In 1814 he was a leader of the Hartford Convention Hartford Convention, Dec. 15, 1814-Jan. 4, 1815, meeting to consider the problems of New England in the War of 1812 ; held at Hartford, Conn. Prior to the war, New England Federalists (see Federalist party ) had opposed the Embargo Act of 1807 and other ..... Click the link for more information. and subsequently defended that meeting. He published Letters Developing the Character and Views of the Hartford Convention (1820) and Otis' Letters in Defence of the Hartford Convention (1824).
Cadore Letter
1810-- Sent by Napoleon and promised to repeal France's restrictions only if England repealed Orders-In-Council
Battle of Tippecanoe
The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought in 1811 between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and forces of Tecumseh's growing American Indian confederation. Significance: This defeat of the Indians and the hands of Harrison drove Tecumseh into an alliance with the British. This infuriated the Americans and set them against the British. Was a major event leading to the war of 1812.
Missouri Compromise
Between 1820 and 1821 a series of congressional agreements known as this resolved the crisis. The first of these agreements involved the balances between slave states and free states. In 1820 Congress agreed to admit Maine as a free state, to pave the way for Missouri's admission as a slave state, and to prohibit slavery in the rest of Louisiana.
January 1, 1808
End of foreign slave trade.

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