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Foundation of Nursing Ch 12


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"clean technique" techniques that stop growth of pathogenic microorganisms. (Handwashing, changing bed linens)
Medical asepsis
surgical asepsis
Destroys ALL microorganisms and their spores (fungi protozoa). (Surgical wounds, tools for surgery)
Infectious process includes
1. infectious agent, reservoir, exit route, method of transmission, entrance, host
Infectious agent
bacteria: a pathogen
grown without oxygen (anaerobic)
spore forming bacterium causes ACUTE infectious disease; 3 forms - skin, inhalation, gastrointestinal
smallest known agent. virus may gain entrance to the body through the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, injected by mosquito, or hypodermic needle.
most common diseases in humans. yeasts and molds. common in cnildren's scalp.
single cell animal living everywhere. Found in intestinal tract, genitourinary tract, respiratory tract, and circulatory system
a natural habitat for a microorgansim to live; includes oxygen, food, water, temp., pH, light. ex. soiled or wet dressing, bedside stand, urinary drainage bags
exit route
a microorganism CANNOT cause disease to another host unless it finds a point of exscape from the reservoir. Exit routes in humans are: gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary, tissue, blood. (output, coughing, STD)
Method os transmission
"vehicle" that is contaminated. non-living objects: fomite (ie. stethescope, needle, soiled dressing, glass). living character: vector
When beds are made, linens should not be shaken. T or F
True. You can easily spread microorganisms.
infectious agent, reservoir, exits, transmission, enterance, host
infectious process
What is our body's first line of defense?
intact skin; provides barrier to micoorganism
nosocomial infections
infections acquired in a hospital at least 12 hrs after admission.
2 types of nosocomial infestion?
exogenous; infection is an infection casued by another person. endogenous is and infection caused by the patient's own microorganism like a patient's feces transferred to a skin wound by hands.
2 tier approach to transmission-based precautions
1st tier; standard precautions. 2nd tier; airborne (TB), droplet, and contact precautions
Precautions for patient with TB
single room, doors closed at all times with exception of entering and exiting, negative pressure monitered, neg. pressure air flow, 6 air changes per hr, HEPA filter (reduce number of droplet nuclei), wear mask when out of room
color for airborne precautions signs
yellow and purple
Disinfection does not destroy spores. T or F
Sterilization does not kill spores. T or F
false; kills all microorganisms including spores
2 types of sterilazation?
1. physical; radiation and heat (steam under pressure, boiling water)2. chemical; solutions, antiseptic, disinfectants (iodine, alcohol, bleach)

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