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HEPE Final


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Name six members of your biological security system.
The six members of your biologic security system discussed in this lesson are skin, digestive system, micro cilia, liver, nervous system, immune system.
Describe the function of micro cilia found in the respiratory system.
Micro cilia of the respiratory system function as a conveyor belt to remove tiny mucus and trapped foreign material breathed in with the air.
Name the three major cellular components of circulating blood.
The three major cellular components of the blood are white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. White blood cells are major players of your immune system; red blood cells transport gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide; and platelets are involved in coagulation of your blood.
What is the function of lymphocytes?
Lymphocytes recognize antigens and orchestrate production of antibodies.
Name and explain the three distinguishing characteristics of your immune system.
Your immune system's three distinguishing characteristics are:

a. Memory of previous encounters with pathogens
b. Ability to recognize minute differences in pathogens
c. Ability to expand an appropriate subset of lymphocytes in response to the invading pathogens
What is the advantage of a secondary response of the immune system over a primary response?
A secondary response of the immune system is faster and the level of antibody production is higher, often resulting in control or destruction of the invading pathogen before illness is experienced.
Name eleven common immunizations used in the United States.
Eleven common immunizations used in the U.S. are chickenpox, rubella, rubeola, hemophilus influenza, mumps, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, pneumococcus, and pertussis (whooping cough).
What is a vaccine?
A vaccine is antigenic material used to simulate a primary response against a pathogen without causing illness.
List the three ways the term resistance is used relative to health.
The term resistance is used to describe

a. A condition of immunity
b. A condition of general health
c. A condition of susceptibility of a pathogen to an antibiotic
If you are immune to a pathogen you are said to have resistance to the pathogen.
If you have good general health, and if your total biological security system is functioning well, you are said to have good resistance.
If a pathogen is not destroyed or controlled by an antibiotic, it is said to be resistant to the antibiotic.
Name the four ORs of inflammation.
Rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and dolor (pain) are the four characteristics of inflammation.
By what means is the common cold virus most frequently transferred from one person to another?
The common cold virus and most other contagious viruses are transferred from one person to another through poor hygiene, especially through contaminated hands. Washing your hands remains one of the most effective means of reducing the spreading of pathogens.
What does itis mean?
How does "honeymoon cystitis" represent a normal function of the immune system?
The immune system needs to meet the invading pathogen and gain memory of the pathogen identity. Next, the immune system must develop a subset of white blood cells that can rapidly expand their ability to produce antibodies against the invader. Until these processes have been accomplished, honeymoon cystitis can occur in women who have become sexually active.
Why are the two diseases malaria and rheumatic fever considered to be examples of failure of the biological security system?
Malaria is a disease caused by the introduction of a protozoan through the skin by a mosquito. The protozoan causes disease because the immune system does not control or destroy the protozoa.

Rheumatic fever is a disease caused by the immune system producing substances in response to exposure to certain streptococcal bacteria. These substances attack tissue of the body resulting in inflammation of the joints, heart, and other connective tissues.
# Name three other diseases considered to represent failure of the immune system to function properly.
Three other diseases considered to represent failure of the immune system are scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. These diseases occur when the immune system causes inflammatory processes in tissues of your own body, thus they are known as autoimmune diseases.
What is the difference between the common flu and influenza?
The common "flu" is a generic term to communicate "I feel bad" (such as when I have an intestinal annoyance with pain and diarrhea), or it is used to communicate "I feel bad" (when I have aches and pains of a viral infection of the respiratory system). On the other hand, influenza is a specific illness caused by a specific virus - the influenza virus. The disease, influenza, is damaging to the respiratory system and very unpleasant.
How often is reasonable to seek an influenza immunization?
The influenza virus changes its antigenic identity regularly; therefore, it is reasonable to seek an influenza immunization every year, especially if you are living in a densely packed environment such as a university, where contagious diseases are easily spread from person to person.
Explain how an allergy attack represents your immune system in action.
An allergy attack occurs when the immune system has been stimulated to respond to a nonpathogenic material as if it were pathogenic. By release of cellular materials, the body tissues are inflamed.
Name ten common types of allergens.
Ten common allergens are rug mite feces, animal dander, molds, scents in perfumes, smoke, insect materials in stinging insects, pollens, drugs, foods, and chemicals.
Describe the appearance of a halo nevus.
A halo nevus looks like a common mole of the skin with a surrounding area of pale or white skin--a mole with a halo.
How does a halo nevus represent your immune system in action?
For reasons not known to us, the immune system attacks the pigmented cells in and around the mole resulting in the gradual destruction of the mole and surrounding pigmented tissue. This is a visible example of your immune system in action.
Why is the concept "safe sex" considered to be a false concept?
Any person infected with a sexually transmitted disease is considered a potential source of infection for any sexual partner. The use of condoms or alternative sexual practices reduces the risk of transmission of STDs but is not 100 percent effective in preventing transmission. The only true safe sex is abstinence until in a relationship with a partner committed to a monogamous relationship and who is known to be free of an STD.
What is PID?
PID stands for pelvic inflammatory disease. It is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes due to the gonorrhea or chlamydia bacteria. PID often results in sterility.
# Antibiotics are often successful in treating which the following diseases (only one answer is correct)?

Herpes and gonorrhea
Gonorrhea and syphilis
Syphilis and HPV
Gonorrhea and syphilis
What does the acronym AIDS stand for?
AIDS is derived from the first letter of the words Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
What is a syndrome?
A syndrome is a group of symptoms and signs that together are characteristic of a specific disorder or disease. For example, AIDS is a group of symptoms and signs characteristic of an immune disorder due to HIV infection.
What is the definition of cancer?
Cancer is a group of diseases caused by the abnormal growth of cells.
What are the recommended examinations to detect colorectal cancer, and how often should they be done?
1. Sigmoidoscopy--every three to five years
2. Digital rectal exam--every year
3. Fecal occult blood test--every year
What are three methods to detect lung cancer?
Chest x-ray, CAT scan, and analysis of the sputum
What are three risk factors for oral cancer?
Smoking, chewing tobacco, and alcohol consumption
What test is thought to be responsible for the decrease in deaths from cervical cancer?
The PAP test
What cancer is the most common in men?
Prostate cancer
What are three recommended habits a woman should incorporate into her life to help detect breast cancer early?
1. Monthly breast self-examination
2. Yearly doctor’s checkup
3. Yearly mammogram
What are the steps in the ABCD test for melanoma?



Why should we avoid foods such as ham, bacon, bologna, and hot dogs?
They contain nitrites, which increase the risk for cancer
What is the difference between distress and eustress?
Eustress is positive stress, while distress is negative stress. Too much stress at once, extended negative stress, or stresses that combine to throw the body out of balance all produce distress.
What are the three key personality traits of those who do not become ill under stress?
Commitment, control and challenge
What are the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome, and what happens in each stage?
* alarm (physical changes as the body prepares for conflict)
* resistance (intensified physical reaction as body adapts and returns to normal)
* exhaustion (in chronic stress, higher level of alarm; when the body’s energy is depleted, disease or death results)
How is the stomach affected by stress?
It slows down and fills with gastric acid. The lining becomes fragile and filled with blood.
What causes a tension headache?
Tension headaches occur when there is chronic tension in the head and neck, which result from stress.
What two things constitute effective stress management?
Controlling reactions and thought processes--our perceptions of what happens to us--and properly utilizing stress management techniques.
What are seven different ways that you can lower stress in your life?
1. Eat a balanced diet
2. Exercise regularly
3. Get enough sleep
4. Manage your time more efficiently
5. Laugh often
6. Think positively
7. Implement a relaxation technique in your life
Which is the best breathing technique, thoracic breathing or diaphragmatic breathing?
Diaphragmatic breathing is the best because it prevents hyperventilation, anxiety and shortness of breath.
What do you need to begin meditation?
A comfortable resting position in an environment with little distraction.
How does the internally controlled person view life?
The internally controlled person takes control of and responsibility for his or her own feelings and reactions. He or she takes life on, dictates direction, and refuses to be easily derailed by outside forces and problems.
Where can you practice muscle relaxation techniques?
Anywhere you have a place to rest without many distractions.
Which of the senses should you not include to practice visualization?
None. You should include all senses to visualize.
List some specific aspects of music that should be avoided.
You should avoid deep or harsh beats, a fast tempo and a loud volume because these aspects prevent relaxation. Don’t forget that you can (and should) listen to your own music preferences.
You should avoid deep or harsh beats, a fast tempo and a loud volume because these aspects prevent relaxation. Don’t forget that you can (and should) listen to your own music preferences.
To find definitions of sexual offenses in your specific state, refer to the criminal code or penal code.
Define the term sexual battery.
Sexual battery refers to any touching of intimate parts against a person's will or upon a person younger than a specified age, with the intended sexual gratification of either party.
Name three cultural influences that encourage or create tolerance for sexual assault.
Any three of the following cultural influences encourage or create tolerance for sexual assault: popular media, music, casual conversation, and male-dominant cultural norms.
Name three characteristics of the drug Rohypnol.
The characteristics of the drug rohypnol are: odorless, tasteless, and colorless when added to beverages, prescription as a sleep aid, and it comes in the form of a small white tablet with the word ROCHE on it.
Name three typical characteristics of a sexual aggressor.
Three typical characteristics of a sexual aggressor are low socialization and responsibility, non-conformity, and impulsive behavior.
List five symptoms of Rape Trauma Syndrome for female victims.
Five symptoms of Rape Trauma Syndrome for female victims are fear, helplessness, shock, disbelief, and guilt.
List three symptoms of Rape Trauma Syndrome for male victims.
Three symptoms of Rape Trauma Syndrome for male victims are depression, flashbacks, and visualized planned retaliation against the aggressors.
Describe how a victim should store the clothing worn during a rape.
The victim should store her clothing and any bedding materials in a paper bag.
List four resources that a victim can turn to for help in recovering from the trauma of rape.
Four resources that a victim can use for help in recovering from a trauma or rape are treatment for post-traumatic stress (short-term and long-term), specialized advocacy or help groups, the District Attorney's office, and public or private school officials.
Name three strategies you can take to be safer as you walk or travel.
Three strategies you can use to be safer as you walk or travel are to use dependable safety escorts or shuttles when available, always observe your surroundings, and avoid isolated areas.
How can a value system protect you from a sexual assault?
A value system can protect you from a sexual assault just by showing the suspects you know and can identify your values quickly and confidently.
List four resources in your community that can help train you to avoid sexual assault.
Four resources in your community that can help train you to avoid sexual assaults are friends and family, rape crisis centers, police agencies, and women's centers.
What are the three steps of a primary survey?
1. Airway
2. Breathing
3. Circulation
When is CPR necessary and how is it done?
CPR stands for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. It is required when the victim has no pulse and no breathing. It is performed by compressing the chest 15 times followed by 2 slow breaths. This 15:2 ratio of compressions and breathing is done 4 times before stopping to reassess the victim.
How does a first aid provider treat an unconscious victim with an obstructed airway?
Kneeling, straddling the victim's thighs, the first aid provider places one hand on top of the other just above the victim's navel and gives up to 5 abdominal thrusts. These thrusts are done in an effort to force the diaphragm up, in turn forcing any obstructions out of the airway. After thrusts are completed, a blind finger sweep of the mouth is done to remove any dislodged obstructions and a breath is attempted.
What are the common signs and symptoms of a conscious victim with a completely blocked airway?
An inability to speak, cough, and breathe in the airway
What are the three steps used to control bleeding in an injured victim?
1. Direct pressure
2. Elevation
3. Pressure points
What steps are included in shallow wound care?
1. Clean with soap and water
2. Remove any foreign matter
3. Apply OTC antibiotic ointment
4. Apply sterile dressing
What is the proper positioning for a nosebleed victim?
Sitting upright with the head tilted forward
What should be done for someone who has ingested a poison or other harmful substance?
1. Call 911 if unresponsive.
2. Perform a primary survey and treat the ABCs as appropriate.
3. Place the victim on his or her left side.
4. Determine critical information.
5. Call Poison Control for instructions.
A big concern with insect bites and stings is the potential for the development of a severe allergic reaction. What are some common signs and symptoms of a victim with a severe allergic reaction or anaphylaxis?
1. Generalized flushed skin
2. Hives
3. Swelling in the tongue and mouth
4. Abdominal cramping
5. Difficulty breathing
What is recommended in the care of a victim of a pit viper snake bite?
1. Calm the victim and keep him or her quiet.
2. Wash the area of the bite with soap and water.
3. Seek medical attention for antivenin.
4. In certain situations, use the Extractor if available.
1. Calm the victim and keep him or her quiet.
2. Wash the area of the bite with soap and water.
3. Seek medical attention for antivenin.
4. In certain situations, use the Extractor if available.

* Redness
* Pain
* Swelling

Partial thickness:

* Redness
* Blisters
* Weeping fluid
* Pain

Full thickness:

* White or black
* No blisters
* Dry
* No pain
What are the main differences between heat exhaustion and heatstroke?
Heat Exhaustion Heatstroke
Normal body temperature High body temperature
Heavy sweating No sweating
Alert, oriented Altered level of responsiveness
After recognizing the signs of a possible heart attack in progress, what should be done?
1. Call 911.
2. Calm the victim.
3. Position the victim in a comfortable upright position.
When providing care for a victim of frostbite, is it appropriate to massage areas affected by frostbite to increase circulation?
No. Massaging such areas can damage the tissue.
What is the key to providing appropriate care to a victim of mild hypothermia?
Do not interfere with shivering in the victim. Shivering is the body's natural way to increase body temperature.
What is the RICE principle?
R= Rest; do not use the affected part

I= Ice; apply for about 20 minutes every 2 to 3 hours for up to 48 hours

C= Compression; use elastic roller bandages

E= Elevation; keep the affected part at or above heart level
How does psychoneuroimmunology help us acknowledge that the human body is an integral aspect of each person’s reality, body mind spirit?
Thoughts and feelings (mind and spirit) affect the body’s immune system and cause increased or decreased susceptibility to disease. A form of intelligence is in each cell; therefore, the body is not simply some other-than-real housing for the more-real inner self but is an integral aspect of the whole being.
Is spirit matter or not matter (immaterial)?
Spirit is matter--see D&C 131:7-8
What is the significance of knowing that the resurrection is a literal reuniting of the body and the spirit?
The body is sacred, the body is eternal, the body is necessary for salvation, we are in the image of God and Christ and will be forever, the body and spirit cannot be separated after the resurrection, and there can only be one physical death.
Understanding the nature of our being, body mind spirit, helps us avoid what common harmful behaviors prevalent today?
Addictions to drugs, tobacco and other substances, obsessions with eating and exercising, or trying to control others’ lives.
What is an absolute metaphysical perspective and how does it differ from a relative metaphysical perspective?
An absolute metaphysical perspective is one that looks to an authority outside oneself to know reality and truth. One believes that unchanging truths govern life and that these truths are universal and apply to each life. Absolutes in the LDS Gospel are eternal, always in effect for all lives whether people believe them or not. A relative metaphysical perspective is one that claims each person is his or her own authority. There are no universal truths and each individual creates his or her own reality.
What absolutes do you know that pertain to the nature of your being?
Spirit is matter, blood is present in the mortal self only, we will be resurrected and live eternally, one being of spirit, flesh and bones, never to die or to have body and spirit separated again, in the premortal life we were spirit only and therefore incomplete, God has a body of flesh and bones, and we are made in His exact image.
What specific benefits does an individual receive who has a clear understanding of the absolutes regarding the nature of our being, body mind spirit?
It’s a basis on which to build a firm foundation, a strong philosophy of life, fixed principles that guide specific actions and decisions, and hope for eternal life.
How do we know the worth or value of a human life?
The worth of each human life is absolute, meaning that it is eternal, unchanging, and cannot be affected by oneself or another--it is not in our hands or anyone else’s. The worth of each life is equal to that of another life. We can intellectually know these concepts about worth, but it’s more important to gain a spiritual confirmation of their truthfulness. Once an individual knows by the Spirit that his or her worth is great, that sure knowledge is stronger than mere cognition
What is the difference between unconditional and conditional self-acceptance?
An unconditional self-acceptance would base acceptance on the eternal, absolute worth of each soul. Worth does not change, for each person’s worth is great, regardless of circumstances or conditions. Conditional self-acceptance would be based on attaining some condition: success, a specific type of appearance, money or prestige. When a person attains the condition important to him or her, that person has a good sense of self (high self-esteem); if that condition is not attained, the person has a poor sense of self (or low self-esteem).
How can we know that God always loves us?
We can trust in the teachings of the prophets and the scriptures, because they assure us of God’s constant love for us. Loving oneself is more a matter of faith than accomplishment. We can have faith that our Heavenly Parents love us as perfect parents would. As we know the true character of God, we know that God is love. With faith in prayer, we can know by way of the Holy Ghost the truth of all things, and most especially, the truth that we are always absolutely loved by Heavenly Father.
Loving oneself, body mind spirit, is nice to do, but does it affect one’s health?
Studies have demonstrated an actual difference in the content of blood cells because of positive attitudes. New discoveries are being made with advances in immune research that indicate that those with positive attitudes experience actual biochemical advantages.
What evidence has medical science given of the power of love in health and healing?
Two examples are psychosocial dwarfism and recovery from heart attacks. In both cases, it was documented that those who knew they were loved had better health or improved more quickly. The trust in being loved is directly correlated with health improvements.

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