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Euro Exam IDs


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Baron Stein and Count Hardenburg
These two initiated the reconstruction of the state. They turned to the Prussian state as the best hope to lead Germany. Under Stein the old caste structure of Prussia became somewhat less rigid.
Berlin Decrees
These were issued by Napoleon in November of 1806 after the French success over Prussia. These forbid the import of British goods to countries allied or dependent on France, they also installed the continental system.
This term refers to people who aimed to restore the French Empire under the House of Bonaparte. It refers to the political movement that advocates the idea of a strong and centralized state. Its followers started in 1815 and continued passed the Congress of Vienna.
The volk and volksgeist
The vook means the common people, meaning people not from the cosmopolitan and artificial life of the upper class. Volksgeist means national character. It emphasizes genius or intuition rather than reason. It stressed differences rather than the similarity of mankind.
He served as Napoleon's foreign minister. He later served as France's representative at the Congress of Vienna; he was smart, amoral, and glib. He wanted France to rejoin the major powers of Europe, decrease liberalism, and minimize France's reparations.
Viscount Castlereagh
An Irish foreign minister for England who organized the Congress of Vienna. He was a dominant figure in Europe and was a Tori.
This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days
Princess Maria Louise
She was the daughter of the Austrian emperor who married Napoleon in 1810 after he divorced Josephine. They had one child, Napoleon II as known as the 'King of Rome', they remained married until Napoleon's death.
Battle of Leipzig
Napoleon had quickly raised a new army but it was untrained and unsteady. This new army was smashed at this battle. It's know as the Battle of Nations to the Germans.
"Father" Jahn
He organized a youth movement where he had his young men do exercises for the Fatherland and led them on open air expeditions into the country, where they made fun of aristocrats in French costume. He taught them to be suspicious of everything that might corrupt the German volk.
Generals Gneisenau and Scharnhorst
These two were in charge of producing a sense of membership in the state. They needed their soldiers to feel hope for promotion and patriotism. Gneisenau had served in one of the British "Hessian" regiments in the War of American Independence and saw the patriotism in the American soldiers.
"nation of shopkeepers"
is a disparaging remark supposedly used by Napoleon to describe the United Kingdom as unfit for war against France. The phrase was not, however, original. Napoleon could have found it in The Wealth of Nations (1776) by Adam Smith,
Prince Clemens von Metternich
He was Austria's representative at the Congress of Vienna, he feared Russia gaining too much power along with liberalism and nationalism as a threat to Austria's power with in Europe. He also wanted to renew good relations with France.
concordat of 1801
Napoleon signed the Concordat of 1801, which called for Papal authority, he wanted a pope. By signing this, Napoleon recognized the Pope and the Pope recognized him and the Republic. It had a clause in which Napoleon confirmed that Catholicism was the religion of a majority of the French people. The real reason Napoleon liked it was because it took the French clergy's influence away and they were the main force behind the counter-revolution.
Josephine Beauharnais
The first wife of Napoleon (ergo empress of france) who was older than him and had been previously widowed with two children. Her contacts high up in the Directory advanced Napoleon's career.
Congress Poland
The constitutional union of the Russian Empire created by the Congress of Vienna. It was later replaced by the Central Powers with the Kingdom of Poland. The creation of Congress Poland created a partition of Polish lands in which the state was divided and ruled between Russia, Austria and Prussia.
St. Helena Island
An island off the coast of Africa where Napoleon was exiled after his second abdication of the throne. He remained here on this bitter island for six years till his death in 1821.
The Moral and Scientific Union founded in Germany to develop moral character. It's a men's society for physical education.
J. G. Herder
A pastor/theologian who wrote "Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind" Claimed that the German race while not inferior, very different than the French. Herder carried folk theory to an extreme by maintaining that "there is only one class in the state, the Volk, (not the rabble), and the king belongs to this class as well as the peasant
Battles of Trafalgar and of Austerlitz
Trafalgar- This was a battle between Napoleon (France) and England. England won and thus they gained great naval supremacy.
Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington
He served in the British Army, leading the British in victory against Napoleon in the Peninsular Wars. Later during the 100 days he led the Allied forces in defeating Napoleon's forces at the Battle of Waterloo. He also became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom as a Tory.
Quadruple Alliance
This was an alliance made between the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia aimed to uphold the settlement following the Napoleonic Wars. It later became the Quintuple Alliance when France joined.
The Hundred Days
The Hundred Days was the period between Napoleon Bonaparte's return from exile on Elba to Paris and the restoration of King Louis XVIII. This period includes the Waterloo Campaign and the Neapolitan War.
Horatio Nelson
He led the British in the Battle of Trafalgar and successfully caught and annihilated the main body of the French and Spanish fleets. He established the supremacy of the British navy.
Germaine De Stael
Was the Daughter of Jacques Necker (that Swiss financial guy under King Louis XVI). She is notable for her intelligence and her feud with Napoleon and her books "Delphine" and "Dix annees d'exil."
Peace of Tilsit 1807
Napoleon charmed Alexander into not joining Britain in the Third Cotillion and the result was the Peace /Treaty of Tilsit. From it the French and Russian/Prussian empires became allies against Britain.
"careers open to talent"
The Consualte produced this doctrine, it changed the way things worked in France, in a small way. For example, qualification ame to depaend on education, not pedigree, and education became a important part of social standing.

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