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MEHAP AP Test Studying (Main Terms)


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Who was John Wycliffe and John Hus? (1320-1415 between them; total)
Wycliffe was an English tehologian who wrote that Scriptures alone shoule be the standard of Christinan belief and practice. Hus was a Czech priest who was burned at the stake for rejecting and questiong certain church doctrines, such as transubstantiation.
What was feudalism?
A political system whereby lords and their vassals, members of the aristocracy, allied to fight wars.
What was manorialism?
The economic base supporting the political arrangement.
What was rationalism, secularism, individualism, and humanism?
Rationalism was the application and use opf reason in understanding and explaining events, Secularism was the emphais on the "here and now" rather than the spiritual and otherworldly, Individualism was the emphsis on the unique and creative personality, and Humanism was the recovery and study of classical authors and writings.
What were condottieri?
Mercenary soldiers for wealthy families.
What was Castiglione's importance?
He (1528) outlined and defined the perfect gentleman.
Who was Machiavelli? What was his importance?
He was the 'unintentional' creator of new monarchs - he wrote that it is better to be feared than loved, and that you must obtain and maintain power by whatever means - the means justifies the ends.
Who were the main artists in the breakthrough to realism in art?
Michelangelo, da Vinci, Raphael, and Botticelli. (Main...)
What type of gov't did the humanists prefer?
Republican gov't was superior because it invited the participation of citizens in the dialogue of governing on which human progress depended.
How was the Northern Renaissance different from that of the Italian Renaissance?
Had a much more religious character - applied the concepts of the Italian renaissance to their own traditions and culture.
How were people finding fault with the power of the pope?
Because the humanists studied the Latin classics and literary culture of the ancient world with deep interest, people found that the documents that gave the pope power of Italy and the entire Western empire were forged, and that republican gov't was preferable.
Who were Erasmus and Thomas More? What were their main advocations?
They were advocates for the deeply relitious character that distinguished the northern Renaissance from its Italian counterpart. More wrote Utopia in 1516, and Erasmus wrote In Praise of Folly in 1509.
Was religion still a large part of life towards the end of the Renaissance?
Christianity still played a dominant role in daily life, but the definition of renaissance dubbed that secularism was on its way in.
Who were the New Monarchs?
New Monarchs in England, France and Spain emerged by suppressing rebellious nobles and relying on middle-class servants to administer royal affairs.
What was the definition of the Renaissance?
This period witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones.
What were some abusive practices the Catholic Church exercised? What were they?
Simony - The selling of church offices.
Nepotism - The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions.
Pluarlism - holding of several church offices.
What was the specific practice that maddened Martin Luther (1483-1546)?
What did he do about it?
He haded the selling of indulgences, or papal pardons for sins, and his actions led to the religiou split in western Christendom. He posted his 95 theses, or principles, in 1517, and this atack centered on the doctine that faith alone, not good works ensured salvation.
What were some of Luther's main principles?
He believed that faith alone ensured salvation. That final authority on debatable religoopus issues lay in the word of God, as revealed in the Bible and as interpreted by the individual.
Who was the main person in power at that time (of Luther) who was attacked by Luther's principles? What happened to Luther because of it?
Luther's challenge to the papal hierarchy and to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (r. 1519-1556) fearful of disintegration of his authority within the empire, resulted in lUther's excommunication at the German Diet of Worms in 1521.
Who were the main supporters of Luther?
German princes - saw the benefit of converting to the Lutheran religion. The princes could keep the tazes flowing to Rome for their own territorial power and the church lands as well.
Townspeople - with commercial interests who felt contrained by the church's restrictions on usury (lending money for interest) and sought flexible business practices.
German peasants who took Luther's sayings literally - the peasants wanted freedom from manorial dues and obligations, and Luther literally said that Christain man is the most free lord of all, subject to none.
What were the causes and results of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555?
The German princes confiscated the church lands and opposed Charles V. The struggle resulted in the Peace of Augsburg, whereby the princes could determine the religion of their own territory and their subjects within it.
What was Calvinism? What did it become? Who were the main people who spread it?
The revolutionary edge of Protestantism and it became the internatinal form of the movement. In Geneva, the theocracy of John Calvin (1509-1564) spread, and then to France, England, and then Scotland (under John Knox - 1505-1572), the Netherlands, and the New World.
What was Calvin's main notion?
In the Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin made the notion of predestination, the idea that eternal salvation is determined by an omniscient, omnipotent and inscrutable God.
What was Max Weber's, the German socialogist, view of Calvinism?
That it helped shape the spirit of capitalism. (See quote in review packet...)
What were the causes and results of the Council of Trent in the mid-century?
In order to save its poewr, the ROman Catholic Church undertook its own reform and sought countermeasures against Protestantism. The mid-century Council of Trent forbade the sale of indulgences, pluralism, and simony and insisted on strict morals, behavior, and dress of clergy. The council insisted in doctrine that salvation could be assured through faith and good works.
Who were the Jesuits? What did they stand for? What did they do? Who were they led by?
A new teaching order, the Jesuits, led by Ignatius Loyla (1491-1556) reaffirmed obedience to the decress of the pope and to the hierarchy of the church.
What was the Inquisition? How did the index result? (Its purpose?)
The church revived the Inquisition, a medieval court that tried heretics and punished the guilty. To preven the exposure of dangerous ideas, the church provided an index, a list of prhibited books.
How did art change?
The church commissioned Catholic painters to turn their talents to religous art. The classical harmony of the Renaissance gave way to the extravagance and passion of baroque art.
What was the English Reformation?
The Catholic Church was unsuccessful in preventing England's withdrawal from its fold. Henry wanted to dissolve his marrage and this was accomplished when he broke with the church and declared himself the Supreme Head of Church and Clergy of England in 1534. He further beheaded the chancellor Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) for refusing to acknowledge publicly his supremacy.
What was the Brethren of the Common Life?
Pious laypeople in 16th century Holland who initiated a religious revival in their model of Christain living.
Who was John Calvin? (Summary)
A French thologian who established a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland and is best known for his theory of pre-destination.
Who was Charles V?
Habsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands.
What was the Council of Trent?
The vongress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545-1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Who was John Knox?
Calvinist leader in 16th century Scotland.
Who was Martin Luther?
German theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of teh unity of the Roman Catholic world.
Who was Sir Thomas More?
Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to recongize publicly his king as Supreme Head of the Church and Clergy of England.
What was the Peace of Augsburg? (Summary)
Document in which Charles V recognized Luthernaism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects.
What is a theocracy?
A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, win which the state is subordinate to the church.

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