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History Vocabulary Ch. 17-19


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the economical and political domination of a strong nation over other weak ones
imperial power allow local rulers to stay in control and protected them against rebellions and invasions.
the idea that English speaking nations had superior character, ideas, and systems of govvernment, and were destined to dominate the planet.
Josiah Strong
American minister in the late 1800s that advocated for Anglo-Saxonism
Matthew C. Perry
Sent to Japan to negotiate a trade treaty.
Queen Liliuokalani
Queen of Hawaii that disliked American influence and tried to make a constitution to reassure her power.
James G. Blaine
Secretary of state in two administrations that led early efforts to expand American influence into Latin America
The idea that the United States and Latin America should work together
Organization of American States (OAS)
an organization that worked to promote cooperation amoung the nations of the western hemisphere
Alfred T. Mahan
Author of "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
Henry Cabot Lodge
Senator that pushed for the construction of a new navy
José Martí
Cuban rebel leader that was exiled to the United States
William Randolf Hearst
Owner of the "New York Journal"
Joseph Pulitzer
Owner of the "New York World"
yellow journalism
writing style where journalists exagerated or even made up stories to attract readers.
Enrique Dupuy de Lôme
writer of a private letter intercepted and printed in the "New York Journal"
an attitude of agressive nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt
Assistant Secretary of the Navy raged the McKinley had "no more backbone than a chocolate éclair."
George Dewey
Commodore that led his squadron on May 1, 1898 into Manila Bay in the Philippines and destroyed several Spanish warships
Emilio Aguinaldo
A Filipino revoloutionary leader who had staged an unsuccessful uprising against the Spanish in 1896. Launched a new geurrilla war after being contacted by Dewey.
"Rough Riders"
volunteer calvary unit from the American West that consisted of cowboys, miners, and law officers.
Leonard Wood
Commander of the Rough Riders
Foraker Act
passed by congress in 1900 that made Peurto Rico an unincorporated territory.
sphere of influence
an area where a foreign nation controlled economic development such as railroad construction and mining.
Open Door policy
all countries should be allowed to trade with China
Boxer Rebellion
A secret Chinese organization known as the Boxers rose up against "foreign devils" killing more than 200 foreigners
"Great White Fleet"
16 battleships of the new US Navy sent out by Roosevelt in 1907 on a voyage around the world
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
gave the United States the exclusive right to build and control any proposed canal through Central America
dollar diplomacy
Taft's policy on Latin America to improve industry
A political movement that crossed party lines which believed that industrialism and urbanization had created many social problems and that government should take a more active role in dealing with these problems.
A journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society.
Ida Tarbell
Published a series of articles critical of the standard Oil Company.
Lincoln Steffens
A reporter who reported on vote stealing and other corrupt practices of urban political machines
Jacob Riis
Described poverty, disease, and crime that afflicted many immigrant neighborhoods in New York City.
Commission Plan
A plan in which a city’s government is divided into different departments with different functions each placed under the control of a commissioner.
Robert La Follette
Republican governor of Wisconsin; political reform first came to the state level when he was elected.
Direct Primary
A vote held by all members of a political party to decide their candidate for public office.
The right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval.
The practices of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature.
The right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office.
The right to vote.
National American Woman Suffrage Association
(NAWSA), the movement did not make significant gains however until about 1910. Part of the problem was getting women to get politically active.
Alice Paul
A Quaker social worker who headed NAWSA’s congressional committee.
Carrie Chapman Catt
Became NAWSA’s leader; she moved the suffrage movement nation-wide in one final push to gain voting rights. She also threw NAWSA’s support behind Wilson in the 1916 election.
Moderation in or abstinence from alcohol.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
(WCTU) led the main temperance movement.
Laws banning the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages.
Belief that business should be publicly owned and run by the government.
Eugene Debs
A former American Railway Union leader, won nearly a million votes as the American Socialist Party candidate for president in 1912, however he lost the election.
United Mine Workers
(UMW), the union who had called a strike of the miners who dug anthracite, or hard coal. Nearly 150,000 workers walked out of eastern Pennsylvania’s anthracite mine demanding a pay increase, a reduction in work hours, and recognition for their union.
A settlement imposed by an outside party.
Bureau of Corporations
Has the authority to investigate corporations and issue reports on their activities.
Hepburn Act
Was intended to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC).
Meat Inspection Act
Required federal inspection of meat sold through interstate commerce and required the Agriculture Department to set standards of cleanliness in meatpacking plants.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure or falsely labeled food and drugs
Newlands Reclamation Act
Authorizing the use of federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects.
Joseph G. Cannon
Speaker of the house who appointed all committees and decided which bills they handled.
Richard A. Ballinger
A conservative corporate lawyer, suspicion of Ballinger grew when he tried to make nearly a million acres of public forests and mineral reserves available for private development.
A business group.
Children’s Bureau
A federal agency similar to Roosevelt’s Bureau of Corporations.
Mann-Elkins Act
Increased the regulatory powers of the ICC
Progressive Party
Nicknamed the Bull Moose Party. Because Taft had alienated so many groups, the election of 1912 became a contest between two progressives: the Bull Moose Roosevelt and the Democrat Wilson.
New Nationalism
A federal trade commission to regulate industry in a manner similar to the ICC’s authority over railroads.
New Freedom
Wilson’s counter program in contrast to Roosevelt’s New Nationalism program.
Underwood Tariff
Reduced the average tariff on imported goods to about 30 percent of the value of the goods, or about half the tariff rate of the 1890’s.
Income Tax
A direct tax on the earnings of individuals and corporations.
Federal Reserve Act
Gave the Board the ability to fight inflation by raising interest rates and to stimulate the economy during a recession by lowering interest rates.
Federal Trade Commission
(FTC) Monitors American Business, they have the power to investigate companies and issue “cease and desist” orders against companies engaging in unfair trade practices.
Unfair Trade Practices
Those which hurt competition.
Clayton Antitrust Act
Banned tying agreements, which required retailers who bought from one company to stop selling a competitor’s products
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) believed in the rights for colored people.
General Victoriano Huerta
Seized power in Mexico who presumably ordered for the killing of the leader of Mexico, Francisco Madero.
Pancho Villa
Led a group of guerrillas that burned the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and killed a number of Americans
An armed band that uses surprise attacks and sabotage rather than open warfare.
General John J. Pershing
Led an expedition to find and capture Villa. This expedition dragged on as Pershing failed to capture the guerrillas.
Triple Alliance
Consisted of Germany, Italy, and Austria- Hungry
A feeling of intense pride of one’s homeland
Self- Determination
The idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government.
Region in southwestern Europe that nationalism led to a crisis
Franz Ferdinand
The archduke and heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Consisted of France, Russia, and Great Britain formed the backbone of the Allies along with Italy.
Central Power
Consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.
Information designed to influence opinion.
Prohibited materials.
German submarine, term means Unterseeboot (undersea boat).
Zimmermann Telegram
Proposed that Mexico ally itself with Germany in the event of war between Germany and the United States. In return, Mexico would regain its “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona” after the war. Germany hoped Mexico would tie down the American forces and prevent them from being sent to Europe. British Intelligence intercepted it.
Forced military service.
Selective Service
Instead of having the military run the draft from Washington, D.C., the Selective Service Act of 1917 required all men between 21 and 30 to register for the draft. A lottery randomly determined the order they were called before a local draft board in charge of selecting or exempting people from military service.

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