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Death in Venice Vocab


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1 a : the act of despising : the state of mind of one who despises : DISDAIN b : lack of respect or reverence for something
2 : the state of being despised
3 : willful disobedience to or open disrespect of a court, judge, or legislative body
1 : pleasing or sweet sound; especially : the acoustic effect produced by words so formed or combined as to please the ear
2 : a harmonious succession of words having a pleasing sound
: a perfumed ointment; especially : a fragrant hair dressing
1 : a person under the protection of a feudal lord to whom he has vowed homage and fealty : a feudal tenant
2 : one in a subservient or subordinate position
1 : sharp and harsh or unpleasantly pungent in taste or odor : IRRITATING
2 : deeply or violently bitter : ACRIMONIOUS <an acrid denunciation>
synonym see CAUSTIC
: exceeding just, usual, or suitable bounds
: an inclination or predisposition toward something; especially : a strong inherent inclination toward something objectionable
1 : the quality or aggregate of qualities in a person or thing that gives pleasure to the senses or pleasurably exalts the mind or spirit : LOVELINESS
2 : a beautiful person or thing; especially : a beautiful woman
3 : a particularly graceful, ornamental, or excellent quality
4 : a brilliant, extreme, or egregious example or instance <that mistake was a beauty>
1 a : a state of being beyond reason and self-control b archaic : SWOON
2 : a state of overwhelming emotion; especially : rapturous delight
3 : TRANCE; especially : a mystic or prophetic trance
4 often capitalized : a synthetic amphetamine analog C11H15NO2 used illicitly for its mood-enhancing and hallucinogenic properties -- called also MDMA
1 : an expression or manifestation of ecstasy or passion
2 a : a state or experience of being carried away by overwhelming emotion b : a mystical experience in which the spirit is exalted to a knowledge of divine things
3 often capitalized : the final assumption of Christians into heaven during the end-time according to Christian theology
: governed or characterized by caprice : IMPULSIVE, UNPREDICTABLE
synonym see INCONSTANT
: marked by propriety and good taste : CORRECT
: the manner in which one conducts oneself : BEHAVIOR
synonym see BEARING
1 : very well suited or expressed : APT <a felicitous remark>
2 : PLEASANT, DELIGHTFUL <felicitous weather>
synonym see FIT
1 a : of, relating to, or proceeding directly from God or a god <divine love> b : being a deity <the divine Savior> c : directed to a deity <divine worship>
2 a : supremely good : SUPERB <the pie was divine> b : HEAVENLY, GODLIKE
: amazement or dismay that hinders or throws into confusion <the two...stared at each other in consternation, and neither knew what to do -- Pearl Buck>
: EMIT <she seems to emanate an air of serenity>
synonym see SPRING
: to divest of a body, of corporeal existence, or of reality
1 : to reduce the mental or moral vigor of
2 : to lessen the vitality or strength of
synonym see UNNERVE
1 a : a relatively high level of cultural and technological development; specifically : the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained b : the culture characteristic of a particular time or place
2 : the process of becoming civilized
3 a : refinement of thought, manners, or taste b : a situation of urban comfort
1 : to gain ascendancy through strength or superiority : TRIUMPH
2 : to be or become effective or effectual
3 : to use persuasion successfully <prevailed on him to sing>
4 : to be frequent : PREDOMINATE <the west winds that prevail in the mountains>
5 : to be or continue in use or fashion : PERSIST <a custom that still prevails>
: deficiency of color especially of the face : PALENESS
1 : to drink liquor freely or excessively
2 : to take part in a carouse : engage in dissolute behavior
1 : characterized by a heavy dimness or obscurity caused by or like that caused by overhanging fog or smoke
2 : characterized by thickness and heaviness of air : FOGGY, MISTY
3 : darkly vague or obscure <murky official rhetoric>
1 a : the quality or fact of being contradictory or inconsistent b : an instance of such contradiction or inconsistency
2 : strong dislike, distaste, or antagonism
1 : good-natured ridicule : BANTER
2 : JEST
1 : admitting maximum passage of light without diffusion or distortion <a pellucid stream>
2 : reflecting light evenly from all surfaces
3 : easy to understand
1 : relating to, containing, or constituting irony <an ironic remark> <an ironic coincidence>
2 : given to irony <an ironic sense of humor>
synonym see SARCASTIC
1 : excessively grasping or covetous
2 : living on prey
3 : RAVENOUS <a rapacious appetite>
synonym see VORACIOUS
1 archaic a : STYLISH b : GENTEEL
2 : sprightly in manner or appearance : LIVELY
a persistent belief in something false
motus animi continuus
a constant agitation of the mind
door, entrance (esp. grand/imposing one)
having the hand on the hip and the elbow turned outward
unusually perceptive, having the power of discerning objects not present to the senses
the condition of being oblivious, the condition or state of being forgotten
1. to move upward/mount/climb 2. to succeed to, occupy
citizen of a town, middle-class person
uttering in musical or prolonged tones, chanting
energetic determination, resoluteness
betwitchment, eutrapturement, fascination
false, of illegitimate birth, not genuine
willful, rash, impetuous, intoxicating, shrewd
a weapon esp. of the 15th/16th centuries consisting ob a battle-ax and pike on a long handle
arousing sexual desire or imagination, lustful
1 : lacking legal or moral restraints; especially : disregarding sexual restraints
2 : marked by disregard for strict rules of correctness
making gestures especially when speaking
1 a : awaiting a chance to entrap : TREACHEROUS b : harmful but enticing : SEDUCTIVE <insidious drugs>
2 a : having a gradual and cumulative effect : SUBTLE <the insidious pressures of modern life> b of a disease : developing so gradually as to be well established before becoming apparent
1 : to ask humbly and earnestly of
2 : to ask for earnestly and humbly
synonym see BEG
1 : to strike sharply or heavily especially with the hand or an implement held in the hand
2 a : to kill or severely injure by smiting b : to attack or afflict suddenly and injuriously <smitten by disease>
3 : to cause to strike
4 : to affect as if by striking <children smitten with the fear of hell -- V. L. Parrington>
5 : CAPTIVATE, TAKE <smitten with her beauty>
intransitive verb : to deliver or deal a blow with or as if with the hand or something held
to break into fissures : CLEAVE
: to incite by argument or advice : urge strongly <exhorting voters to do the right thing>
: to give warnings or advice : make urgent appeals
1 a : very hot and humid : SWELTERING <a sultry day> b : burning hot : TORRID <a sultry sun>
2 a : hot with passion or anger b : exciting or capable of exciting strong sexual desire <sultry glances>
: equivalent in value, significance, or effect
: lacking restraint; especially : marked by indulgence in things
: temperamentally disinclined to talk
synonym see SILENT
1 : to induct (a person) into a permanent office with a religious rite; especially : to ordain to the office of bishop
2 a : to make or declare sacred; especially : to devote irrevocably to the worship of God by a solemn ceremony b : to effect the liturgical transubstantiation of (eucharistic bread and wine) c : to devote to a purpose with or as if with deep solemnity or dedication
3 : to make inviolable or venerable <principles consecrated by the weight of history>
1 : full of sinews : as a : TOUGH, STRINGY <sinewy meat> b : STRONG <sinewy arms>
2 : marked by the strength of sinews <a demanding sinewy intelligence -- Helen Dudar>
1 a : DIZZY <giddy from the unaccustomed exercise> b : causing dizziness <a giddy height> c : whirling rapidly
2 a : lightheartedly silly : FRIVOLOUS b : joyfully elated : EUPHORIC
1 a : of or relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior : ETHICAL <moral judgments> b : expressing or teaching a conception of right behavior <a moral poem> c : conforming to a standard of right behavior d : sanctioned by or operative on one's conscience or ethical judgment <a moral obligation> e : capable of right and wrong action <a moral agent>
2 : probable though not proved : VIRTUAL <a moral certainty>
3 : perceptual or psychological rather than tangible or practical in nature or effect <a moral victory> <moral support>
1 a : being neither moral nor immoral; specifically : lying outside the sphere to which moral judgments apply <science as such is completely amoral -- W. S. Thompson> b : lacking moral sensibility <infants are amoral>
2 : being outside or beyond the moral order or a particular code of morals <amoral customs>
: not moral; broadly : conflicting with generally or traditionally held moral principles
1 a : stern and cold in appearance or manner b : SOMBER, GRAVE <an austere critic>
2 : morally strict : ASCETIC
3 : markedly simple or unadorned <an austere office> <an austere style of writing>
4 : giving little or no scope for pleasure <austere diets>
5 of a wine : having the flavor of acid or tannin predominant over fruit flavors usually indicating a capacity for aging
1 : characterized by routine or superficiality : MECHANICAL <a perfunctory smile>
2 : lacking in interest or enthusiasm
1 a : to cast rays of light upon : ILLUMINATE b : to enlighten intellectually or spiritually c : to affect or treat by radiant energy (as heat); specifically : to treat by irradiation
2 : to emit like rays of light : RADIATE <irradiating strength and comfort>
: marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious and sometimes pretentious display
1 : the bottomless gulf, pit, or chaos of the old cosmogonies
2 a : an immeasurably deep gulf or great space b : intellectual or moral depths
1 : to abolish by authoritative action : ANNUL
2 : to treat as nonexistent <abrogating their responsibilities>
2 a : generally agreeable <an amiable comedy> b : being friendly, sociable, and congenial
1 a : to influence or affect especially injuriously by witchcraft b : to cast a spell over
2 : to attract as if by the power of witchcraft : ENCHANT, FASCINATE <bewitched by her beauty>
intransitive verb : to bewitch someone or something
: marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or alcohol; also : reflecting such restraint <an abstemious diet>
1 : UNRESTRAINED <unbridled enthusiasm>
2 : not confined by a bridle
1 : a shelter resembling a cabin usually with an open side facing a beach or swimming pool
2 : a lightweight structure with living facilities
1 : a rich crimson or scarlet lake made from cochineal
2 : a vivid red
: marked by, held in, or conducted with secrecy : SURREPTITIOUS <a clandestine love affair>
synonym see SECRET
1 a : to cause to be of no effect : NULLIFY b : to destroy the substance or force of
2 : to regard as of no consequence
3 : to cause to cease to exist; especially : KILL
4 a : to destroy a considerable part of <bombs annihilated the city> b : to vanquish completely : ROUT <annihilated the visitors 56-0>
5 : to cause (a particle and its antiparticle) to vanish by annihilating
1 a : first created or developed : PRIMEVAL 1 b : existing in or persisting from the beginning (as of a solar system or universe) <a primordial gas cloud> c : earliest formed in the growth of an individual or organ : PRIMITIVE <primordial cells>
2 : FUNDAMENTAL, PRIMARY <primordial human joys -- Sir Winston Churchill>
1 : relating to or affected with anemia
2 a : lacking force, vitality, or spirit <an anemic rendition of the song> <anemic efforts at enforcement> b : lacking interest or savor : INSIPID <anemic wines> c : lacking in substance or quantity <anemic returns on an investment> <anemic attendance>
: lack of moderation; especially : habitual or excessive drinking of intoxicants
1 : to lower in rank or reputation : DEGRADE
2 : to depreciate by indirect means (as invidious comparison) : speak slightingly about
1 a : turned away from what is right or good : CORRUPT b : IMPROPER, INCORRECT c : contrary to the evidence or the direction of the judge on a point of law <perverse verdict>
2 a : obstinate in opposing what is right, reasonable, or accepted : WRONGHEADED b : arising from or indicative of stubbornness or obstinacy
3 : marked by peevishness or petulance : CRANKY
4 : marked by perversion : PERVERTED
synonym see CONTRARY
1 a : causing little or no pain b : slow to develop or heal <indolent tumors> <indolent ulcers>
2 a : averse to activity, effort, or movement : habitually lazy b : conducive to or encouraging laziness <indolent heat> c : exhibiting indolence <an indolent sigh>
1 : to influence by or as if by charms and incantation : BEWITCH
2 : to attract and move deeply : rouse to ecstatic admiration <the scene enchanted her to the point of tears -- Elinor Wylie>
1 : conjuration of the spirits of the dead for purposes of magically revealing the future or influencing the course of events
: the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant; also : the expression so substituted
1 a : a person (as a priestess of ancient Greece) through whom a deity is believed to speak b : a shrine in which a deity reveals hidden knowledge or the divine purpose through such a person c : an answer or decision given by an oracle
2 a : a person giving wise or authoritative decisions or opinions b : an authoritative or wise expression or answer
signet ring
: a finger ring engraved with a signet, seal, or monogram : SEAL RING
1 : having no legal or binding force : INVALID
2 : amounting to nothing : NIL
3 : having no value : INSIGNIFICANT
4 a : having no elements <null set> b : having zero as a limit <null sequence> c of a matrix : having all elements equal to zero
5 a : indicating usually by a zero reading on a scale when a given quantity (as current or voltage) is zero or when two quantities are equal -- used of an instrument b : being or relating to a method of measurement in which an unknown quantity (as of electric current) is compared with a known quantity of the same kind and found equal by a null detector
6 : of, being, or relating to zero
7 : ZERO
: one that serves merely for wages; especially : a soldier hired into foreign service
: one that serves merely for wages; especially : a soldier hired into foreign service
–verb (used with object) 1. to change the form or nature of; transform.
2. to subject to metamorphosis or metamorphism.
–verb (used without object) 3. to undergo or be capable of undergoing a change in form or nature.
1 : a long narrow flat-bottomed boat with a high prow and stern used on the canals of Venice
1 : a man who gives exaggerated attention to personal appearance
2 : something excellent in its class 1 : of, relating to, or suggestive of a dandy : FOPPISH
2 : very good : FIRST-RATE <a dandy place to stay>
: a structure built parallel to the bank of a waterway for use as a landing place
-the bright, dignfied side of human nature and endeavor
-rationalism, form
-civic pride
-noble forms of worship
-reflected literality in the Homeric epics and Socratic philosophy
-Schopenhauer's "principal of individualism"
-the dark, rebellious recesses of the soul
-"intoxication," ectasy
-antisocial dominance of the emotions
-savage chtonic (relating to the underworld) religion
-refelected in heady art and music and the Atenian tragic drama (originally a musical form)
-Schopenhauer's concept of the "will"
-the dissolver-Ashenbach's "natural" enemy-symbolized by strange red-headed men
Eros, the Greek god of love and sexual desire (the word eros, which is found in the Iliad by Homer, is a common noun meaning sexual desire). He was also worshiped as a fertility god, believed to be a contemporary of the primeval Chaos, which makes Eros one of the oldest gods. In the Dionysian Mysteries Eros is referred to as "protagonus", the first born. But there are many variations to whom the parents of Eros really where. According to Aristophanes (Birds) he was born from Erebus and Nyx (Night); in later mythology Eros is the offspring of Aphrodite and Ares. Yet in the Theogony, the epic poem written by Hesiod, it mentions a typified Eros as being an attendant of Aphrodite, but not her son. Another legend says that he was the son of Iris and Zephyrus.
From the early legend of Eros it is said that he was responsible for the embraces of Uranus (Heaven or Sky) and Gaia (Earth), and from their union were born many offspring. It was also written that Eros hatched our race and made it appear first into the light (Birds, by Aristophanes). Although one of the oldest gods, he was a latecomer to Greek religion. He was worshiped in many regions of Greece, at Thespiae there was an ancient fertility cult, and in Athens he and Aphrodite had a joint cult. Also in Athens the fourth day of every month was sacred to Eros. Sometimes Eros was worshiped by the name Erotes (which is the plural of Eros); this personified all the attractions that evoked love and desire, this included heterosexual and homosexual allurements. Anteros (the Returner of Love also known as the god of Mutual Love) was the brother of Eros, which comes from the version of which Aphrodite and Ares are said to be the mother and father of Eros.

Eros is usually depicted as a young winged boy, with his bow and arrows at the ready, to either shoot into the hearts of gods or mortals which would rouse them to desire. His arrows came in two types: golden with dove feathers which aroused love, or leaden arrows which had owl feathers that caused indifference. Sappho the poet summarized Eros as being bitter sweet, and cruel to his victims, yet he was also charming and very beautiful. Being unscrupulous, and a danger to those around him, Eros would make as much mischief as he possibly could by wounding the hearts of all, but according to one legend he himself fell in love. This legend tells us that Eros was always at his mothers side assisting her in all her conniving and godly affairs. The legend goes on to say that Aphrodite became jealous of the beauty of a mortal, a beautiful young woman named Psyche. In her fit of jealousy Aphrodite asked Eros to shoot his arrow into the heart of Psyche and make her fall in love with the ugliest man on earth. He agreed to carry out his mothers wishes, but on seeing her beauty Eros fell deeply in love with Psyche himself. He would visit her every night, but he made himself invisible by telling Psyche not to light her chamber. Psyche fell in love with Eros even though she could not see him, until one night curiosity overcame her. She concealed a lamp and while Eros slept she lit the lamp, revealing the identity of Eros. But a drop of hot oil spilt from the lamp awakening the god. Angered she had seen him Eros fled and the distraught Psyche roamed the earth trying in vain to find her lover. In the end Zeus took pity and reunited them, he also gave his consent for them to marry. There are variations of this legend but most have the same outcome.

The Romans borrowed Eros from the Greeks and named him Cupid (Latin cupido meaning desire). Eros has been depicted in art in many ways. The Romans regarded him as a symbol of life after death and decorated sarcophagi with his image. The Greeks regarded him as most beautiful and handsome, the most loved and the most loving. They placed statues of him in gymnasiums (as most athletes were thought to be beautiful). He was depicted on every form of utensil, from drinking vessels to oil flasks, usually showing him ready to fire an arrow into the heart of an unsuspecting victim.
Hermes and his petasos and thyrsos
Hermes, the herald of the Olympian gods, is the son of Zeus and the nymph Maia, daughter of Atlas and one of the Pleiades. Hermes is the god of shepherds, land travel, merchants, weights and measures, oratory, literature, athletics and thieves, and known for his cunning and shrewdness. Most importantly, he is the messenger of the gods. Besides that he was also a minor patron of poetry. He was worshiped throughout Greece -- especially in Arcadia -- and festivals in his honor were called Hermoea.

According to legend, Hermes was born in a cave on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. Zeus had impregnated Maia at the dead of night while all other gods slept. When dawn broke amazingly he was born. Maia wrapped him in swaddling bands, then resting herself, fell fast asleep. Hermes, however, squirmed free and ran off to Thessaly. This is where Apollo, his brother, grazed his cattle. Hermes stole a number of the herd and drove them back to Greece. He hid them in a small grotto near to the city of Pylos and covered their tracks. Before returning to the cave he caught a tortoise, killed it and removed its entrails. Using the intestines from a cow stolen from Apollo and the hollow tortoise shell, he made the first lyre. When he reached the cave he wrapped himself back into the swaddling bands. When Apollo realized he had been robbed he protested to Maia that it had been Hermes who had taken his cattle. Maia looked to Hermes and said it could not be, as he is still wrapped in swaddling bands. Zeus the all powerful intervened saying he had been watching and Hermes should return the cattle to Apollo. As the argument went on, Hermes began to play his lyre. The sweet music enchanted Apollo, and he offered Hermes to keep the cattle in exchange for the lyre. Apollo later became the grand master of the instrument, and it also became one of his symbols. Later while Hermes watched over his herd he invented the pipes known as a syrinx (pan-pipes), which he made from reeds. Hermes was also credited with inventing the flute. Apollo, also desired this instrument, so Hermes bartered with Apollo and received his golden wand which Hermes later used as his heralds staff. (In other versions Zeus gave Hermes his heralds staff).

Being the herald (messenger of the gods), it was his duty to guide the souls of the dead down to the underworld, which is known as a psychopomp. He was also closely connected with bringing dreams to mortals. Hermes is usually depicted with a broad-brimmed hat or a winged cap, winged sandals and the heralds staff (kerykeion in Greek, or Caduceus in Latin). It was often shown as a shaft with two white ribbons, although later they were represented by serpents intertwined in a figure of eight shape, and the shaft often had wings attached. The clothes he donned were usually that of a traveler, or that of a workman or shepherd. Other symbols of Hermes are the cock, tortoise and purse or pouch.

Originally Hermes was a phallic god, being attached to fertility and good fortune, and also a patron of roads and boundaries. His name coming from herma, the plural being hermaiherm was a square or rectangular pillar in either stone or bronze, with the head of Hermes (usually with a beard), which adorned the top of the pillar, and male genitals near to the base of the pillar. These were used for road and boundary markers. Also in Athens they stood outside houses to help fend off evil. In Athens of 415 BCE, shortly before the Athenian fleet set sail against Syracuse (during the Peloponnesian War), all the herms throughout Athens were defaced. This was attributed to people who were against the war. Their intentions were to cast bad omens on the expedition, by seeking to offend the god of travel. (This has never been proved as the true reason for the mutilation of the herms.)

The offspring of Hermes are believed to be Pan, Abderus and Hermaphroditus. Hermes as with the other gods had numerous affairs with goddesses, nymphs and mortals. In some legends even sheep and goats. Pan, the half man half goat, is believed to be the son of Hermes and Dryope, the daughter of king Dryops. Pan terrified his mother when he was born, so much so that she fled in horror at the sight of her new born son. Hermes took Pan to Mount Olympus were the gods reveled in his laughter and his appearance and became the patron of fields, woods, shepherds and flocks. Abderus, a companion of the hero Heracles, is also thought to be a son of Hermes, he was devoured by the Mares of Diomedes, after Heracles had left him in charge of the ferocious beasts. Hermaphroditus (also known as Aphroditus) was conceived after the union of Hermes and Aphrodite. He was born on Mount Ida but he was raised by the Naiads (nymphs of freshwater). He was a androgynous (having the characteristics of both sexes) deity, depicted as either a handsome young man but with female breasts, or as Aphrodite with male genitals.

It was Hermes who liberated Io, the lover of Zeus, from the hundred-eyed giant Argus, who had been ordered by Hera, the jealous wife of Zeus, to watch over her. Hermes charmed the giant with his flute, and while Argos slept Hermes cut off his head and released Io. Hera, as a gesture of thanks to her loyal servant, scattered the hundred eyes of Argos over the tail of a peacock (Heras' sacred bird). Hermes also used his ingenuity and abilities to persuade the nymph Calypso to release Odysseus, the wandering hero, from her charms. She had kept Odysseus captive, after he was shipwrecked on her island Ogygia, promising him immortality if he married her, but Zeus sent Hermes to release Odysseus. Legend says that Calypso died of grief when Odysseus sailed away. Hermes also saved Odysseus and his men from being transformed into pigs by the goddess and sorceress Circe. He gave them a herb which resisted the spell. Hermes also guided Eurydice back down to the underworld after she had been allowed to stay for one day on earth with her husband Orpheus.

Known for his swiftness and athleticism, Hermes was given credit for inventing foot-racing and boxing. At Olympia a statue of him stood at the entrance to the stadium and his statues where in every gymnasium throughout Greece. Apart from herms, Hermes was a popular subject for artists. Both painted pottery and statuary show him in various forms, but the most fashionable depicted him as a good-looking young man, with an athletic body, and winged sandals and his heralds staff. His Roman counterpart Mercury inherited his attributes, and there are many Roman copies of Greek artistic creations of Hermes.
Hyacinth was a beautiful youth loved simultaneously by two deities, Apollo and Zephyr. Apollo was so entranced by Hyacinth and his love for him that he abandoned all his duties: he stopped attending to the oracle in Delphi, of which he was in charge; he stopped playing his zither; he ceased to keep his weapon, the bow, at the ready. Out of jealousy, Zephyr picked up Apolloís discus, threw it at Hyacinth, and killed him. The Hyacinth flower is said to have grown up out of the blood of this youth. Aschenbach assumes the role of Apollo in this myth: he abandons his "duties" and succumbs to his rapture for Tadzio. Note the allusion here to Nietzsche's Apollo.
Semele and Zeus
Zeus fell in love with Semele, to the dismay of his wife Hera. Out of revenge, Hera deceived Semele into asking Zeus to appear to her in all his divine glory. Since Zeus had promised Semele that he would grant her every wish, he felt obliged to do this, knowing full well that his divine presence would kill Semele. She perished from his thunderbolts. But before she died, Zeus rescued their yet unborn child, the god Dionysus. Here is the allusion to Nietzsche's other deity.
Plato (Socrates) argues here that sensual beauty is the manifestation of archetypal, eternal form; thus, to succumb to sensual beauty, to fall in love, is to gain provisional entrance into the realm of disembodied form. Plato says that the soul "grows wings" and makes a first step toward its own dissolution into pure form--hence its ability to communicate in this state of loving self-abandonment with the eternal archetypes. Already in this conception, Eros and Death are fused.
Goat-bearded man on ship = satyr, attendant to god Dionysus
Characteristics of strange men
a. red hair
b. snub nose
c. prominent Adam’s apple
d. perpendicular furrows in forehead
e. straw hat
f. white teeth
Tightly clenched fist
Image for A. = the clenched fist (Death 9); A. always "up-tight," never relaxed, loose, calm, unpressured, etc.
Cf. Death 40, where A. lets his hands hang down over the chair arms = symptomatic of the transformation he is undergoing, letting go, giving in to impulse, beauty, etc. The intrusion of the irrational, of longing, yearning, and death, into Aís Apollinian existence.
Tadzio as Narcissus; introduces problematic of self-love. > What A. loves in Tadzio is the repressed part of his own self; the side of his personality represented by his mother = sensuality, "music," ardor, impulsiveness.

Narcissus is another example among several of a beautiful young man who spurned sex and died as a result. As such, his myth has much in common with those of Adonis and Hippolytus. In the Roman poet Ovid's retelling of the myth, Narcissus is the son of the river god Cephissus and the nymph Liriope. Tiresias, the seer, told his parents that the child "would live to an old age if it did not look at itself." Many nymphs and girls fell in love with him but he rejected them. One of these nymphs, Echo, was so distraught over this rejection that she withdrew into a lonely spot and faded until all that was left was a plaintive whisper. The goddess Nemesis heard the rejected girls prayers for vengeance and arranged for Narcissus to fall in love with his own reflection. He stayed watching his reflection and let himself die. It is quite possible, however, that the connection between Echo and Narcissus was entirely Ovid's own invention, for there is no earlier witness to it.
An important and earlier variation of this tale originates in the region in Greek known as Boeotia (to the north and west of Athens). Narcissus lived in the city of Thespiae. A young man, Ameinias, was in love with Narcissus, but he rejected Ameinias' love. He grew tired of Ameinias' affections and sent him a present of a sword. Ameinias killed himself with the sword in front of Narcissus' door and as he died, he called curses upon Narcissus. One day Narcissus fell in love with his own reflection in a spring and, in desperation, killed himself.

Both of these stories give an origin to the narcissus flower, which grew where Narcissus died.
Pomegranates and Persephone
Persephone is the goddess of the underworld in Greek mythology. She is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, goddess of the harvest. Persephone was such a beautiful young woman that everyone loved her, even Hades wanted her for himself. One day, when she was collecting flowers on the plain of Enna, the earth suddenly opened and Hades rose up from the gap and abducted her. None but Zeus, and the all-seeing sun, Helios, had noticed it.

Broken-hearted, Demeter wandered the earth, looking for her daughter until Helios revealed what had happened. Demeter was so angry that she withdrew herself in loneliness, and the earth ceased to be fertile. Knowing this could not continue much longer, Zeus sent Hermes down to Hades to make him release Persephone. Hades grudgingly agreed, but before she went back he gave Persephone a pomegranate (or the seeds of a pomegranate, according to some sources). When she later ate of it, it bound her to underworld forever and she had to stay there one-third of the year. The other months she stayed with her mother. When Persephone was in Hades, Demeter refused to let anything grow and winter began. This myth is a symbol of the budding and dying of nature. In the Eleusinian mysteries, this happening was celebrated in honor of Demeter and Persephone, who was known in this cult as Kore.

The Romans called her Proserpine. Her names means something like "she who destroys the light."
"Robbers". In earlier versions of Greek myth, Harpies were described as beautiful, winged maidens. Later they became winged monsters with the face of an ugly old woman and equipped with crooked, sharp talons. They were represented carrying off persons to the underworld and inflicting punishment or tormenting them. Those persons were never seen again. They robbed the food from Phineus, but were driven away by Cailas and Zetes, the Boreads, and since then they lived on the Strophades. The Harpies were probably the personification of storm winds. They are: Aello, Celaeno, and Ocypete.
The Greek god of shepherds and flocks, who was especially popular in Arcadia. He is a son of the god Hermes. He was depicted as a satyr with a reed pipe, a shepherd's crook and a branch of pine or crown of pine needles. He had a wrinkled face with a very prominent chin. On his forehead were two horns and his body was hairy. He was a swift runner and climbed rocks with ease. Pan belonged to the retinue of Dionysus.
Pan was also a god of fertility, unbridled male sexuality and carnal desire. He chased nymphs through the forests and mountains in the shape of a goat. Pan was not very liked by the other Greek gods.
Poseidon is a god of many names. He is most famous as the god of the sea. The son of Cronus and Rhea, Poseidon is one of six siblings who eventually "divided the power of the world." His brothers and sisters include: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Zeus. The division of the universe involved him and his brothers, Zeus and Hades. Poseidon became ruler of the sea, Zeus ruled the sky, and Hades got the underworld. The other divinities attributed to Poseidon involve the god of earthquakes and the god of horses. The symbols associated with Poseidon include: dolphins, tridents, and three-pronged fish spears.
Poseidon was relied upon by sailors for a safe voyage on the sea. Many men drowned horses in sacrifice of his honor. He lived on the ocean floor in a palace made of coral and gems, and drove a chariot pulled by horses. However, Poseidon was a very moody divinity, and his temperament could sometimes result in violence. When he was in a good mood, Poseidon created new lands in the water and a calm sea. In contrast, when he was in a bad mood, Poseidon would strike the ground with a trident and cause unruly springs and earthquakes, ship wrecks, and drownings.

Poseidon was similar to his brother Zeus in exerting his power on women and in objectifying masculinity. He had many love affairs and fathered numerous children. Poseidon once married a Nereid, Amphitrite, and produced Triton who was half-human and half-fish. He also impregnated the Gorgon Medusa to conceive Chrysaor and Pegasus, the flying horse. The rape of Aethra by Poseidon resulted in the birth of Theseus; and he turned Caeneus into a man, at her request, after raping her. Another rape involved Amymone when she tried to escape from a satyr and Poseidon saved her. Other offspring of Poseidon include: Eumolpus, the Giant Sinis, Polyphemus, Orion, King Amycus, Proteus, Agenor and Belus from Europa, Pelias, and the King of Egypt, Busiris.

One of the most notorious love affairs of Poseidon involves his sister, Demeter. Poseidon pursued Demeter and to avoid him she turned herself into a mare. In his lust for her, Poseidon transformed himself into a stallion and captured her. Their procreation resulted in a horse, Arion. Poseidon is Greek for "Husband" (possibly of wheat), and therefore it is thought that he and Demeter (goddess of wheat) are a good match because they reign as the god and goddess of fertility.

Another infamous story of Poseidon involves the competition between him and the goddess of war, Athena, for the city of Athens. To win the people of the city over, Poseidon threw a spear at the ground and produced the Spring at the Acropolis. However, Athena won as the result of giving the people of Athens the olive tree. In his anger over the decision, Poseidon flooded the Attic Plain. Eventually, Athena and Poseidon worked together by combining their powers. Even though Poseidon was the god of horses, Athena built the first chariot. Athena also built the first ship to sail on the sea over which Poseidon ruled.

Poseidon often used his powers of earthquakes, water, and horses to inflict fear and punishment on people as revenge. Though he could be difficult and assert his powers over the gods and mortals, Poseidon could be cooperative and it was he who helped the Greeks during the Trojan War. Poseidon is an essential character in the study of Greek mythology.
an ancient Greek stringed instrument similar to but larger than the lyre and having a box-shaped resonator
1 a : a hot dust-laden wind from the Libyan deserts that blows on the northern Mediterranean coast chiefly in Italy, Malta, and Sicily b : a warm moist oppressive southeast wind in the same regions
2 : a hot or warm wind of cyclonic origin from an arid or heated region
1 a : to press or urge with troublesome persistence b archaic : to request or beg for urgently
importunate (the conditions described above)
1. pleased, esp. with oneself or one's merits, advantages, situation, etc., often without awareness of some potential danger or defect; self-satisfied: The voters are too complacent to change the government.
2. pleasant; complaisant.
plural of the following (phenomenon)
1. a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable: to study the phenomena of nature.
2. something that is impressive or extraordinary.
3. a remarkable or exceptional person; prodigy; wonder.
4. Philosophy. a. an appearance or immediate object of awareness in experience.
b. Kantianism. a thing as it appears to and is constructed by the mind, as distinguished from a noumenon, or thing-in-itself.
a large spar projecting forward from the stem of a ship, a spar projecting from the upper end of the bow of a sailing vessel, for holding the tacks of various jibs or stays and often supporting a jib boom.
having no keel, as a ship.
ancient Greek word for sea
–adjective 1. odd or unnatural in shape, appearance, or character; fantastically ugly or absurd; bizarre.
2. fantastic in the shaping and combination of forms, as in decorative work combining incongruous human and animal figures with scrolls, foliage, etc.
–noun 3. any grotesque object, design, person, or thing.
noun 1. appearance, esp. the look or expression of the face: a sad countenance.
2. the face; visage.
3. calm facial expression; composure.
4. approval or favor; encouragement; moral support.
5. Obsolete. bearing; behavior.
–verb (used with object) 6. to permit or tolerate: You should not have countenanced his rudeness.
7. to approve, support, or encourage.
—Idiom8. out of countenance, visibly disconcerted; abashed: He was somewhat out of countenance at the prospect of an apology.
a necromancer
–noun 1. the appearance or semblance of truth; likelihood; probability: The play lacked verisimilitude.
2. something, as an assertion, having merely the appearance of truth.

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