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AP Mod vocab 4


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Guiseppe Garibaldi
soldier of fortune who amassed his "red shirt" army to bring Naples and Sicily into a unified Italy
Alcide de Gasperi
the leader of the Christian Democrats in Italy; commited to democracy and moderate social reform
Charles de Gaulle
first president of the French Fifth Republic and former head of the Free French movement in World War II
William Gladstone
British Liberal Party leader and prime minister, a chief rival of Disraeli. ____'s ministry included reforms in public education, civil service exams and secret balloting
Glorious Revolution
a reference to the political events of 1688-1689 when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange
Great Fear
the panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives
Francois Guizot
chief minister under Louis Philippe. ______'s repressive policies led to the revolution of of 1848
forced labor camps set up by Stalin for political dissidents
habeas corpus
legal protection that prohibits the imprisonment of a subject without demonstrated cause
Prince Henry the Navigator
sponsor of voyages along West African coasts, 1418.
Henry IV
formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism
J.G. Herder
forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people chared a national character, or Volksgeist
Paul von Hindenburg
president of Weimar Germany, who appointed Hitler chancellor in 1933; formerly a general in World War I
Japenese city on which the United States dropped an atomic bomb on August 6, 1945
Adolf Hitler
Nazi leader who came to power legally in Germany in 1933, set up a totalitarian dictatorship, led Germany into WWI
Thomas Hobbes
political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state
Holy Alliance
an alliance dreamed up by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles
House of Savoy
Italian dynasty ruling the independant state of Piedmont-Sardinia. Its head was King Victor Emmanuel II
French Calvinists
the recovery and study of classical authors and writings
David Hume
author of An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Hungarian Revolt
attempt by students and workers to liberalize the Communist regime and break off military alliance with the Soviet Union
John Huss
Czech priest who was burned at the stake for rejecting and questioning certain church doctrines, such as transubstantiation
the acquisition and administration of colonial areas, usually in the interests of the administering country
financial demands placed on loser nations
Indemnity Bill
bill passed by the German Reichstag that legitimated Bismarck's unconstitutional collection of taxes to modernize the army in 1863
a list of books Catholics were forbidden to read
emphasis on the unique and creative personality
papal pardon for remission of sins
a religious commmittee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution
the period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1660), between the Stuart dynastic rules of Charles I and Charles II
the dominant gropu in the National Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondins. Headed by Robespierre
James I
Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and assereted the divine right of kings
James II
final Stuart ruler; he was forced to abdicate in favor of William and Mary, who agreed to the Bill of Rights, guarenteeing parliamentary supremacy
Karl Jaspers
German existentialist seeing all people as equally co-responsible for the terrors and injustices of the world
Jean Jaurès
French revisionist socialist who was assassinated for his pacifist ideals at the start of WWI
AKA: Society of Jesuits; founded by Ignatius Loyal as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism
Kellog-Briand Pact
document, signed by 15 countries, that "condemned and reonounced war as an instrument of national policy"
Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet leader who denounced Stalin's rule and brought a temporary thaw in the superpowers' relations
John Knox
Calvinist leader in 16th century Scotland
an independent and propertied Russian farmer
Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with the Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismark halted these policies
Labor Party
British party that replaced the liberals in the early 20th century and championed greater social equality for the working classes through the efforts of labor unions
the economic concept of the Scottish philosophe Adam Smith. In opposition to mercantilism, the gov't's role in the economy was one of non-interference.
Ferdinand Lassalle
leader of the revisionist socialists, who hoped to achieve socialism through the ballot rather than the bullet. Revisionists agreed to work within the framework of the existing gov't
Lateran Agreement
pact that provided recognition by Mussolini of the Vatican and a large sum of money to the church as well
law of the maximum
the fixing of prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre's rule
League of Nations
a proposal included in Wilson's Fourteen Points to establish an international organization to settle disputes and avoid future wars
V.I. Lenin
the Bolshevik leader who made the Marxist revolution in Nov. 1917 and modified orthodox Marxism in doing so
levée en masse
the creation, under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, hearalding the emergence of modern warfare
Liberal Party
formerly the Whig Party, headed by Gladstone in the nineteenth century
Locarno Treaty
pact that secured the frontier between Germany and France and Germany and Belgium. It also provided for mutual assistance by France and Italy if Germany invaded its border countries
John Locke
political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural rights to live, liberty and property. His most important works are "Two Treatises on Gov't" and "Essay on Human Understanding"
Louis XIV
AKA: the "Sun King"; the ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in 17th century Europe
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Nephew of Napoleon I; he came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848
British merchant liner carrying ammunition and passengers that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915. The loss of 139 American lives on board was a factor bringing the US into WWI

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