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musc 136 exam 2


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binary form
two part AB form with each section normally repeated
composition in ABA form usually in triple meter, replaced in the minuet and trio in the nineteenth century.
joseph haydn
Classical period: Suprise symphony: Genre: orchestra, obobes, flutes, bassoons, fernch horns, trumpets, strings, and timpani.
string quartet
chamber music ensamble made up of either two biolins, two violas, and cello or two violins, viola, and two cellos.
characteristics from the renaissance
musicians o f this era were employed in churches, cities, and courts, golden age of a cappella singing, music features a more full, consonant sound, the device of word painting allowed the text to be expressed musically. the motet (a sacred genre with latin devotional text) uses imitation. secular dance music was played wiht embellishments and chansons and madrigals became popular.
characteristics from the baroque
monody, solo song with instrumental accompaniment, harmony notated wiht figured bass which helped improviseation. the bass part, basso continuo, played by two instruments. Major\minor taonality system was established, regular rhythms and continuous melodic expansion. musical instruments develloped technically the level of virtuosity and laying techniques rose. opera, oratorio, cantata. arias, recitatives, chruses. order, objectivity, and harmonious proportion.
J.S. Bach
brought the baroque era to its peak with his cantatas. A Mighty Fortress is our God, genre: cantata. 8 movements for chorus, soloists and orchestra.
Hildegard von Bingen
Mideval and renassiance; Alleluia, O virga Mediatrix (Genre: Plainchant).;
vocal genre or solo singers, shorus, and instrumentalists based on al yric or dramatic poetic narrative. generally has several movements, recitatives, arias, and ensemble numbere.s
Ludwig van Beethoven
Classicism: Symphony No. 5 in C minor. Op. 67. Genre; Smphony. Also Moonlight Sonata (Genre: Sonata)
opening section. in the fugue, the first section in which thevoices enter in turn wuith the subject. in the sonata allegro form, the first section in which the major thematic material is stated.
ternary form
three part ABA form based on a statemetn A, contrast or departure B and repetition A. also three part form
characteristics from the classical era
absolute music (no pictorial or literary program), multimovement cycle: three or our movements; these include the classical era symphony, sonata, stronig quartet, and concerto. Sonata-allegro form (three main sections: exposition, development, recapitulation). Ternary form (A-B-A) a rondo form often in the fourth movement of a piece...and the golden age of chamber music, especially of the string quartet.
josquin des Prez
Renassiance: Ave Maria...virgo serena (Hail Mary...gentle virgin). Genre is 4 voice motet
sonata-allegro form
the opening movement of the multimovement cycle, consists of themes that are stated in the exposition, developed in the development, an d restated in the recapitulation.
Guillaume de Machaut
mid 14th century: medieval and renassiance. wrote the chanson. Led to troubadors. Puis qu'en oubli (since I am Forgotten)
henry purcell
Baroque: Dido and Aeneas: Genre: Opera, English. Based on Virgils' The Aeneid
renassiance secular work originating in italy for Voices, with or with out instrumentsset to a short, lyric love poem. popular in italy and england
in the concerto, twofold statement of the themes, once by the orchestra and once by the soloist
antonio vivaldi
Baroque: Wrote concertinos, his most famous being the Four Seasons: Genre: programmtic conerto for solo violin. #1-4 based on an italian sonnet, 3 movements each.
polyphonic form popular in the baroque which has one or more themes developed by imitative counterpoint
large scale dramatic genre originating in the baroque based on a text of religious or serious character, eprformed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra. similar to opaera but w\o scenery, costumes, and action
musical form in which the first section recurs, usually in the tonic. in the classical movement cycele, it appears as the last movement.
large work for orchestra, generally in three or four movements.
instrumental genre in several movements for solo or instrument and orchestra. .
G.F. Handel
Baroque; Messiah, Nos. 18 and 44 are most famous. Genre is Oratorio in 3 parts. Also Water Music, a suite in D major, all ahornpipe. Genre, Dance suite.
dominant characteristics from the medieval time
Gregorian chant featuring monophonic,non metric, melodies set in a church mode or scales. Responsorail performances. Mass: Proper (texts that vary according to day, and Ordinary texts that remain the same for every mass). Organum (earliest polyphony, with two, three, or four voice parts in rhythmic modes. organum and the motet. Troubadors and trouveres in france, the french Ars Nova (new art) and polyphonic chansons (secular songs) are set to fixed text forms, rondeau, ballade, virelai. Generally musicais improvised, performed of soft bas ensembles or loud haut instruments.
polyphonic vocal genre, secular in the middle ages but sacred or devotional thereafter
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Renassiance: Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria (Genre: Mass; gloria, From a setting off the Ordinary.) Has 6 voices (SATTBB)
rounded binary form
compositional form with two sections, in which the second ends with a return to material from the first, each section is usually repeated.
planchant (gregorian)
monophonic melody with a freely flowing, unmeasured vocal line; liturgical chant of the roman catholic church.
opera (18th C.)
music drama that is generally sun throughout. compines resources of vocal and instrumental music with poetr and drama, acting and pantomime, scenery and costumes
Claudio Monteverdi
Late renassiance; early Opera. Orfeo. Italian Opera becaomes famous b\c of him.
the last part of a piece, usually added to a standard form to bring it to a close.
melodic variations
the procedure in which a melod y is altered while certain features are maintained. used in theme and variations form.
rhythmic variations
the procedure in which note lengths, meter, or tempo is altered. often used in theme and variations.
the restatement of the third section of the sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the expositon is restated in the tonic.
da capo aria
a ternary or ABA form that brings back the first section with embellishments improvised by a soloist. Baroque
earliest kind of polyphonic music, which developed rom the custom of ading voices above a plainchant. ran parallel to the fifth or fourth of the voice of the plainchant.
theme and variations
compositional procedure in which a theme is stated and then altered in successive statements; occurs as an independent piece or as a movement of a multimovement cycle.
structural reshaping of thematic material. second section of sonata-allegro form, it moves through a series of foreigh keys while themes from the exposition are manipulated.
multimovement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key.
sonata duo\solo
instrumental genre in several movements or soloist or a small ensamble
harmonic variations
the rocedure which the chords accompanying the melody ar ereplaced by others. often used in theme and variations form.
wolfgang amadeus mozart
Classical period: The Marriage of Figaro (Genre: Opera Buffa)
concerto grosso
baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments and orchestra.
ritornello form
short, recurring instrumental oasage found in both the aria and the baroque concerto.

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