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Western Religion


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story of creation of the earth
structure of the world, what itÂ’s made up of,
Patriarchal time is
recorded history.
Sex vs. gender:
sex is the male or female physical body, gender is the constructed representation of the sex in expected or stereotypical behaviour or characteristic
– what the text means on its own terms, no personal interpretation. - reading out of the text
- reading into the text, involving ones opinions to the reading
separation of the Jewish and Christian religions
P creation story vs. J creation story “P” vs “J”
– differences in the name of God – P is Elohim (god) institutional setting – priestly J is YHWH, likely an individual, possibility of it being a woman, has a long history of oral tradition stories used widely for entertainment and lesson teaching. Thereafter came the interpretation of stories. differences are in the creation accounts – how men and women were created.
Gen 1:27
– God created humankind in his image; in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.
Difference between the creation stories
– First creation, men and women were made together at the same time, both made in God’s image, both are called upon to rule the earth.
Second creation, eve is derived from man as she is made from Adam’s rib. This implies servitude. Adam has a purpose, he is responsible for the earth. Eve is a suitable helpmate. She was brought to Adam, gifted to Adam. Implies ownership. Adam names eve not once but twice, naming gives him power over her. But the statement “Becomes one flesh” states that they are still equal.
The Man
– man – ha – adam = the adam – the man, less active figure of creation. More passive than eve.
(In Genesis vs. later traditions) creature made by god after Adam was made. Is active in genesis tale of creation. Is the companion and “helper” of Adam. Is not implied to serve Adam. Reader is meant to identify with eve. Eve is a complex character, uses more reason than Adam. She is humanistic.
Apocryphal/deuterocanonical literature-
literature not accepted in the cannons by all traditions only the Christian religion accepts not the Jewish or Protestant.
- WomenÂ’s untold stories of earlier texts. Attempts to complete the authors writings through womenÂ’s stories. Negates the subservient positions of women in Genesis. Written about the same time as the Biblical 2nd c. BCC
Hagar lead a great nation.
– servant of Sarai/Sarah, she is given to Abram/Abraham to conceive a child when Sarah cannot. Is the mother of Ishmael. Is cast out by Sarah when she (Sarah) finally conceives. Has a covenant with God that her son will
Trickster tales:
Rebecca tricks Isaac into blessing his younger son Jacob instead of Esau, which promotes Jacob with the lineage of Abraham, not Esau. Esau must therefore serve his younger brother. This hierarchal prophecy was told to Rebecca when she was pregnant with the twins by the archangel. Rebecca manipulated to enact the prophecy.
Leader of the Edomites, first born son of Rebecca and Isaac
– son of Isaac and Rebecca, was truly the first born son by pushing his hand out first during his birth, however he pulled his hand back and Esau became the first born.
First wife of Jacob/Israel, older sister to Rachel
Second wife of Jacob/Israel, but first chosen wife, Jacob was implored to marry Leah before Rachel because the eldest daughter should, according to their father marry first. Competitiveness prevailed between the sisters to give numbers in birth, when they could not conceive they offered Jacob their servants as their handmaids/surrogates.
Bilha and Zilpa
– servants or slaves of Rachel Leah, they have Israel/Jacobs children when his wives cannot conceive.
daughter of Jacob and Leah. She was raped or compromised, I include both because the word for rape is similar to compromised position of being alone with a man before marriage in Hebrew, by Shechem this created a battle between Jacob’s sons Simeon and Levi and Shechem’s community where in they tricked the community by having them circumcise themselves in order for Shechem to be able to marry Dinah. The community was compelled to do so by their leader – Shechem’s father in order for the marriage to occur. However after the circumcision was done the marriage did not occur. They were left bloody.
Simeon and Levi:
Sons of Jacob and Leah who tricked the _____ into circumcising the men in an act of vengeance for their sister Dinah.
man who compromised Dinah by meeting her alone and raping her.
Davidic kingship:
14 generations from Abraham to David and the kingship occurred when the community was growing larger and they were compelled to do so to contend with the empires around them where in Kings and or Pharaohs ruled.
Son of Jacob and Leah who continued the lineage of Abraham.
tricked Judah when he didnÂ’t offer his remaining son, Shelah to her in order for her to have a child by her husbandÂ’s family.
TamarÂ’s husband who died
ErÂ’s brother who refused to become involved in the Leverite marriage with Tamar when his elder brother died because he was selfish and wanted the lineage to pass on to himself, his children. He was killed for spoiling his semen and his selfish motives.
Youngest son of Judah who was supposed to be given to Tamar in order to complete the Leverite marriage.
First twin son of Tamar and Judah from when Tamar tricked Judah into maintaining the Leverite marriage with her by pretending to be a whore for him.
In Gospel of Matthew Angel appears to him and informs of his son, son is from the holy spirit. Joseph dismisses the pregnancy.
Asenath (in Gen. Vs. later interpretations):
Joseph’s wife foreigner – Egyptian woman
Exodus from Egypt:
Moses led the Isrealites from Egypt.
Midwives of the Hebrews in Exodus,
women who where supposed to kill every male Israelite son born but out of fear of their God disobeyed the Pharaoh.
Pharoah in Exodus:
Experienced 10 plagues for attempting to enact the genocide of the Israelites ?
MosesÂ’ mother:
Elizabeth who became the surrogate mother to her own son Moses
ParoahÂ’s daughter in Exodus:
became the mother of Moses after finding him, disobeyed her father by keeping Moses alive through hiring an Israelite woman to nurse him on his sisterÂ’s suggestion, trickery again, which ended up being his own true mother.
Deborah -
Prophet and Judge of Israelites sent for Barak to act out the LordÂ’s command to fight.
Went with Barak to the Mount Tabal to fight for IsraelÂ’s freedom from oppression in Canaan.
Barak -
General of Israel commanding an army of 40,000 lead to mount Tabal with Deborah and found victory through GodÂ’s deliverance of Sisera and his army.
Yael -
Hid Sisera from Barak and his army, under a rug in her tent she gave him milk instead of water for his thirst then struck him with a tent peg through his temple and killed him.
When the army came looking for Sisera she showed them his body.
- General of King Jabin of CanaanÂ’s army
– Foreign Wife and Queen of Ahab King of Israel. Although the bible does not refer to her as a Queen she is. The NT uses Jezebel as a reference to a whore or unsafe woman. She follows the Canaanite pagan religion worshiping Asherah and Baal. Foreign wife of Ahab, King of Isreeal in mid 9th c. BCE. She is the personification of evil. Killed the prophets of the lord. 450 Propets of Ball and 400 of Asherah who eat at the table of Jezebel. Elijah kills Jezebels prophets on Mount Carmel. Dogs shall eat her. Her name is a generic catchword for whoring, non –believing female adversary. In judeo Christian traditions she is evil incarnate. The bible is careful not to refer to her as a queen but she is.
– King of Israel, marries a foreign woman – Jezebel who creates disharmony among the Isrealites. Seen as the worst king of Israel.
– Warrior god of the Canaanite
– one of 3 Canaanite goddesses, she is the mother Goddess symbolized by a tree or pole. Is associated to God in that although it is a sin to honour deities. Worshiped by Jezebel
Second Temple Judaism
– A time of great strife and unrest for Isreal
– Queen of Ahasuerus king of Persia. She wins the favour of the head Eunuch to advance her position among the virgins the king is to choose his new wife from. She saves the Jews living in Diaspora in Persia. She is the cousin and adopted daughter of Mordechai. The banquet she instructs Mordechai to have become the celebration of Piram. The book of Ester has been contested over for its place in the cannons of Biblical literature. Rabbi’s have issue with some of the practices of the book like the dietary laws, foreign marriage, feminine heroine, lack of mention of God and so forth. Answers the question of how Jews are to live in Diaspora.
Esther Book – pre isilic period, debated for inclusion in the cannon. Rabbis were uncomfortable with her behaviour of marrying a foreign husband and her dietary laws. The book doesn’t mention god and she takes advantage of her feminine wiles.
– Queen of Ahasuerus king of Persia. Removed from her position for not obeying the instruction of the king to present and display herself (naked) infront of his council.
– adopted father of Esther. Wins favour with the king once the king finds out that Mordechai’s information stopped a plot to kill the king.
– head councillor of the king of Persia, threatens the lives of the Jews by getting the king of Persia to sign a decree to have all Jews killed. This is done because Mordechai refuses to bow down to him.
Second Temple Judaism:
period of great Social and Political upheaval. The development of national identity with the land. Where to live, what is meant to be a Jew. Questions of foreignness, concept of women constructed. Divisions of weak individual and conquered authority.
– references made to previous texts to present a parallel between the periods
Wisdom/Hokhmah /Sophia –
Personification of the feminine side of God. Wisdom is the aspect of God that communicates with humans Ideas of wisdom build on the ideas of Ben Sira.
Wisdom tradition: wisdom as the daughter of God, wife of a wise man, mother of Israel. Feminine concept of God not limited to 1 period. Tradition forms in Monarch period.
Wisdom is metaphorical and was the first thing created, had a role in creation. The element of wisdom represents the closest relation to humans, Takes a figure of her own, separates from God during Proverbs and Job in the 5th and 6th centuries BCE. Ben Sira states wisdom is also the Torah. Shekhinah – wisdom element of God that interacts with human kind. Sophia – Greek for wisdom, 2nd trajectory of wisdom found in the Wisdom of Solomon. Important in Christianity, their patriarchal society required a masculine view of wisdom based off the view of women in society. The wisdom figure leads to the feminine side of God. Is the most positive side of femininity in the Bible. Seems to mediate between God and human kind. Took form during the period of the Monarchy. Seen as the key to understanding God.
Wisdom literature
ben Sira and Song of Solomon are considered wisdom literatures not included with in the cannons of the religion. Personification of God, daughter of God.
Christianity flips the feminine image of wisdom to male found our materialized in Jesus. Is the thread of continuity that connects other traditions.
Apocryphal/deutero-canonical literature:
coined at the council of Trent in the 16th c.
– Jews living outside of Israel in foreign lands under foreign rule
Diaspora story
- Stories in which Jews are living in foreign lands under foreign rule as a minority but are able to surpass their minority position. Give light to how a Jew is to live under foreign rule.
– Is compelled by God to speak against the decision to spill the blood of a woman without appropriate proof. Separates the elders to decide the truth of their story. Discovers that they have lied and according to law the men are killed instead of Suzzana. Through this Daniel is able to present his wisdom to the community.
– Accused of adultery and sentenced to death until Daniel speaks up and acts to find the truth. She is a very pious woman with much beauty. She is lusted after by 2 town elders and instead of giving in to their plan she chooses death instead of sinning against god. Her story explains Daniels wisdom and how his people come to know of it. She is married to an honourable man but in danger despite her position because of her beauty. Intertextuality with Joseph and Pharoah’s wife who lusted after him. Susanna does not use her beauty to change her lot in fact she is persecuted because of it. She is a victim of deception. Presents the idea that women are still in danger when alone.
– King of Persia acts to reverse the decree to kill all Jews by allowing them the ability to join forces and fight off the aggressors. Persian laws could not be undone or changed this was the only way he could attempt to reverse the act
– cut off the head of Holofernes the general of the Syrian army. Acted in secret to manipulate the general. Prayed to God for success in her manipulation citing the Rape of Diana and the acts of her brothers Simeon and Levi in vengeance for the rape of their sister. She is very pious and a widow who regards morning rituals such as fasting. Living in Diaspora she acts in a leadership position though she doesn’t have a title. Prays to God to support her in her misleadings as he did with Simeon and Levi. Prays for success of her deception. Uses her beauty with the Syrian Guards to gain and audience with Holofernes. Syrians enthralled with her beauty considered killing all the male Jews to keep the feminine beauty for themselves. She gets Holofernes to trust her and is then able to chop off his head which she keeps as proof of his death.
– General of the Syrian army who falls for Judith and her beauty. Essentially giving Judith the ability to kill him.
Jesus Movement
– begins after Jesus is dead. first generation after Jesus’ death in which his followers worked through missionary endeavors
New Testament
– Furthers God’s relationship with his people, deals with the saving of humanity and explains God’s relationship with humanity. Continuation of God’s relationship with his people. Inspired writings authored by Christ’s followers. 27 books in the modern book in some cases more. Meant to be read in continuity with the Torah. Depicts prophesies in the bible. 200 years between the Torah and the NT. Salvation history.
– works on the birth, life ministry and death of Jesus. Represent 4 of the larger sets that were circulating at the time. Mark Matthew Luke and John became canonical. Talk specifically about the life of Jesus. There was even a gospel of Mary
Synoptic Gospels
– Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke. Considered the earlier of the gospels. These became along with the gospel of John the canonical gospels. The Synoptic gospels are seen together as a grouping. They are similar Mark is seen as the earlier gospel approx. 40 BCE and it is thought that the others used Mark to construct their own gospel along with another source usually referred to as Q. Stories are meant to highlight the prophesies of the messiah
Pauline Epistles
– Letters Paul formally known as Saul wrote to different communities and churches, included in Cannon for its explanations. Paul is represented through letters.
term meaning anointed – Christos = Greek term. Kings are anointed it is a symbolic action.
Mother of John the Baptist. Associated through miraculous conception of John the Baptist to Mary mother of Jesus
Father of John the Baptist. In Luke the angel appears to him to announce the conception of his son.
John the Baptist:
Baptized Jesus. Mark begins with JBs proclamation then the baptism of Jesus. John instead of Zachariah after father?????? Appears in the gospels and preached purification.
Mary mother of Jesus:
Presented differently in the Gospels, Luke she is an virgin engaged to Joseph, Angel tells her of her conception – similar to Sarah for talking back to angel.
of the birth of John the Baptist and later Jesus in Luke the angel of god tells Mary and the angel informs Zechariah of John the Baptists birth. In Matt the angel tells Joseph of Jesus. Matt and Luke give importance to the Annunciation, others donÂ’t.
Mary, Martha, Lazarus:
brother and sisters. Lazareth is ill the sisters send for Jesus who does not return immediately and Lazarus dies. Jesus resurrects Lazarus. Story shows that the sisters are on equal ground. Martha speaks with Jesus, shows that women are followers of Jesus.
Mary Magdelene:
seen as a paradigm – associated with Mother Mary, rich tradition in Christianity – seen as reformed prostitute, subject of exorcism in Luke. 7 demons. Witness to the death and resurrection of Jesus.
Pastoral Epistles:
Epistles = letters, pastoral Eplistles are Pastoral letters, Pastoral are the for fathers of the religion. Letters about the religionÂ’s fathers = Abraham, and his sons most likely.

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