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Briefly relate the reasoning that explains the "music of the spheres."
Large planets must make sounds. Each makes a separate sound since some move faster. There are 7 distinct sounds with 2 making the same sound.
The "century of revolution" lasted from _____ to _____
133 BC to 31BC
What prompted the early election of Scipio the Younger to the consulship in 147BC?
Third Punic War
Relate, rougly, the Younger Scipio's rather arrogant words to a "contio" on the day of his death:
He states that as long as Scipio lives, Rome stands but only his death would allow destruction of the state. 129BC, his death, was during a massive uprising of the lower classes because of the land bill.
Briefly comment on the idea: "What we perceive is a reflection of ourselves."
Narcissus and Echo prove that reality is relative to who's describing it. Whatever you see is a reflection of yourself because the way we interpret what we see is affected by our learning, prejudices, histroies, etc. Narcissus thinks his version of reality (reflection in a pool) is real since he's never seen a reflection of himself. Echo thought Narcissus wanted to see her because he called for her. Their realizties are rpoven wrong ultimately because reality is perception rather than truth.
When was Cicero's De Re Publica published?
When was the first formal presence of Christians established in Britain? By whom?
597AD, Pope Gregory sent Augustine to England
Plato lived from _____ to _____
428BC to 348BC
What "death occurred for both Echo and Narcissus?
They both faded away.
Cicero's central message in the De Re Publica is that it is each citizen's highest duty to ______________ rather than _______________
serve one's country and this pursuit; individual fame, glory, or power
What prompted Lelex to tell this story about Baucis and Philemon?
Pirithous did not believe that gods were able to change the forms of things.
Give the number of solar years in the magnus annus:
1.73 x 10^16
Supposedly, Publis Scipio Nasica was considered the "best citizen in the state" because he _______
served the state and ignored family ties as a restults
The first printed Bible, in Latin, appaeared when?
In which Punic War did Scipio Minor hold the position of general?
Macrobius said that the Dream "contained the sum total of _______."
Give two reasons why Plato distrusted democracy.
List the three languages prior to English in which the Bible was written, the name of each version, the name of the person responsible, the date commissioned, and the reason for that edition.
A. Hebrew, Pentateuch, Solomon, 940BC, to create a written history of the Jewish people; B. Greek, Septuagint, Ptolomy II, 200BC, few Jews spoke Hebrew very well and they were more skilled in Greek; C. Latin, Vulgate, jerome, 400AD, 1) Western part of Rome spoke little Greek 2) Poorer classes only knew a little Latin
The word carmen means _______ and probably refers specifically to the ______ and is used by Ovid as a cause of his _______
song; Ars Amatoria; exile
Why was Plato given the name Plato?
Who was primarily responsible for this version?
King James
Relate, roughly, Cicero's definition of a commonwealth.
Why did Augustus dislike Ovid, even before the immediate cause of his banishment?
1) Ovid did not support or even recognize Augustus' accomplishments. 2) Ovid's poetry contained themes of romance and eroticism, not commitment to gods, family, and country???
Who is the sister of Paulus?
Why did the early Christian leadership begin its canonization of the "New testmanet" so early (2nd century)?
to combat heresies
You should study continually, for this trains your __________, which leads to ______, which will give _______, which culminates in _______, and then, ultimately, to _________.
perceptions; knowledge; truth; virtue; salvation
Why should one man not consider himself better than another?
Who wrote the greatest number of books of the "New Testmanet"?
With the heavens being number nine and farthest, list the planets in order as Paulus describes them.
9. Heavens 8. Saturn 7. Jupiter 6. Mars 5. Sun 4. Venus 3. Mercury 2. Moon 1. Earth
What is unusual about Ovid's style in respect to prepositions?
He omits them often to fit the rhythm of a line.
Cicero says that Pompey and Caesar sought ________ rather than _______
absolute power; happiness and honor in the community.
What part of the elder Scipio's early statements in the dream caused Scipio's guests to gasp when he related the words?
Elder Scipio predicted the younger's death after 56 years--which was that exact year
How does Seneca's style differ from Cicero's?
Short, abrupt sentences with simple structure while Cicero used longer sentences with several clauses.
Cicero states that stars possess divinity because they are formed from ______
What is unusual about Ovid's style in respect to conjunctions?
He uses -que more than he uses et.
Ovid's father sent Ovid to Rome to study _______ which is the ancients' equivalent to our ______
oratory; law
How does Paulus respond when asked, "Quoniam haec est vita, quid moror in terris?"
humans may only be separated from their bodies when the gods command them to.
The first Latin writer to imitate these works in Latin was ______ in the early ________
Ennius; 2nd century
How had Echo incurred the wrath of this goddess?
She distracted Juno while the nymphs fled
Detail Cicero's reasoning for concluding that the earth will be destroyed by fire, rather than by flood.
Right now the stars' celestial flames are nourished by the earh's water. That water is finite however. After all of it has been consumed the earth would undergo a conflagration. No water means the earthly fire cannot stop.
Philosophies originate with twin purposes: to make ________ tolerable and to make _____ tolerable
world; death
What does "Uror amore mei" mean and how does this line ultimately presage Narcissus' demise.
"I am burnt by love for myself." ; Narcissus cannot help but to look at himself in the pool even after he knows it's fake. Nemesis had cursed him and so once Narcissus observed himself in the pool his life became short.
The earliest works in thei tradition of literature were composed by _________ in about ______
Homer; 800BC
The word error means ______ and probably refers to something Ovid ______ since he did not use the word _______
mistake; saw; scelus
Scipio the Younger died in _______ BC because, it is thought, of his bitter opposition to ____________
129; the Gracchi and the land reform bill.
Who started Stoicism?
The meter of the Metamophoses is composed of two types of "feet"?
Dacyls and spondees
What was the early prophecy which forewarned Narcissus' problem?
The seer said that Narcissus would live a long life only if he does not truly know himself.
What Stoic philosopher wrote the Epistulae Morales?
Seneca's Stoicism is expressed in his _______ number of letters to _______
126; Lucilius
The tone of the poetry of Horace and Vergil is generally more _____ while the tone of Ovid's works is _______-
serious; romantic
Cicero states that the body is merely the _______ for the _______.
shelter; soul
What is the Scipionic Circle and how did it affect Rome's cultural development?
It's Greek and Latin intellectuals and literati. They brought Greek ideas to Rome, particularly Platonic philosophy. Scipio attracted these things???
List five of the reasons Paulus uses to explain why fame on this earth is unimportant.
1. Earth is small 2. Empire on earth is even smaller. 3. Descendents are lesser and not better than ancestors 4. Descendents will be destroyed by natural disasters. 5. The Great Year renders insignificant the annals of man.
Who is the grandmother of the Gracchi?
All works in thiis meter share a tone and intent which is ______
Who is the mother of the Gracchi?
"Just as God moves the _______, so too does the ______ move the _______."
planets; everlasting spirit; fragile body
In what year was the younger Scipio in Africa?
What Stoic philosopher lived 280-206BC?
Why did Seneca's tragedies appeal to the Elizabethan period?
High rhetoric and dramatic form
Define etiological myth and list three items from the story whose etiology the story explains
Etiologyical myth is one describing the origin of something. A) the trees B) the temple C) the lake
Why had the elder Scipio been in Africa?
he was attacking and besieging Carthage to end the Second Punic War.
What Stoic philsopher lived 330-260BC?
Paulus describes the earth by saying that below the moon is nothing except the _______ and the _______, except for the ______ given by a gift of the gods.
mortal; fleeting; soul
What Stoic philosopher introduced physics to Stoicism?
What prompted the younger Scipio to dream of the elder Scipio?
his long conversation with King Masinissa about Scipio Africanus
To where did Narcissus turn for advice?
The woods.
Detail Macrobius's contritbution to the survival of the Somnium Scipionis. Include when, how, what, and his description of the Somnium Scipionis.
Macrobius wrote a commentary in 5th century AD abotu Somnium Scipionis. It discussed the life of the soul after death and the theory of perfect numbers. It preserved Cicero's work and ultimately brought it widespread popularity because of its detailed imagery and discussion of afterlife that appealed to Christians and Pagans alike. Description????????
Who is the 1st cousin to P. Scipio Nasica?
Ti. Gracchus
Ti. Gracchus' death began a century of _______when right ______
bloodshed and license of the sword; was overtaken by might
Why did the vignette of the goose arise in the first place?
Baucis and Philemon felt they needed to sacrifice their last goose when they discovered the guests were gods.
What were the Phillipics?
bitter invections by Cicero against Antony--14 speeches
Scipio the Younger was consul again in _________ to end the war against _____ in _______
134BC; Numantia; Spain
When Plato states that the philosopher's mind disdains the smallness of human things in favor of exploring the lofty and universal, what point is he making?
When was teh earliest of the four Gospels of the "New Tesstament" written?
60's AD
Give two methods by which the magnus annus may be computed:
A) Time necessary for planets to come from one alignment to another B) Procession of the equinoctes
Dates for Ovid's life
45BC - 17AD
How does the pool in which Narcissus sees his reflection resemble Narcissus himself?
The pool is without mud, untouched, etc. Narcissus himself has not been "touched" either. Both are beautiful and pure yet untouched.
What is unusual about Ovid's style in respect to the number of a noun?
He uses plural where we'd use singular.
What did Macrobius do which probably ensured the survival of the Dream?
he wrote a commentary on it
Why was information so important to the Christians not written sooner?
1. Belief that Christ might come back 2. Strong oral tradition since most early Christians were illiterate
Who prepared the funeral for Narcissus?
Water nymphs
Give the physical explanation of Fate.
What will allow your soul a swift flight to the heavens?
being patriotic and preserving the state and earth
What is the ideal form of government, according to Cicero?
In the Vulgate, the genitive case is often replaced by _______
de + abl.
What is the reason for Ovid's use of antithesis?
to express paradoxes in his own life
List four elements of the style of the Latin fund in the Vulgate.
1) Lots of repetition 2) limited vocabulary 3) simple syntax 4) little rhetorical embellishment
What is the Scipionic Circle?
a group of greek and Latin intellects and literati that agreed with Scipio's political views.
Who is the grandfather of the Gracchi?
Give the dates of Seneca's life
5BC - 65AD
In what century did Stoicism reach Rome?
2nd century BC
The meter Ovid chose for the Metamorphoses is _____________ which is the meter of that genre of literature called _________-
dactylic hexameter; epic
How did Baucis and Philemon feel about the fate of their neighbors?
They were saddened.
The formation of the _______ _____ made inevitable Cicero's imminent death.
By what emperor was Seneca exiled?
The government under Augustus, though still a republic in form, came to be called a _____
Why must we remove all excesses from our lives?
According to Cicero, Ti. Gracchus' law was acceptable to the poorer classes because _________, while the Optimates opposed it because ______________
Who is the father of younger Scipio?
L. Aemilius Paulus
Cicero's Dream of Scipio is modeled on Plato's !!!!!!!!!
Myth of Er
What will allow your soul its swiftest flight to the heavens?
projecting one's mind to matters beyond the corporeal
Of the four in the cottage, how many ate dinner?
Define tone:
the attitude of the author towards his or her work
The most enduring and influential Latin writer of this genre was _______
Why would the late 1st century AD be the appropriate time for the Jews finally to canonize the "Old Testament"? Two reasons.
1. Jews needed one set book since they were spreading out. 2. Christians started to edit and revise the old Testament.
Why was this style employed, as compared to, say, Ciceros's?
A simpler style could be read more easily. Few people outside of the upper class could comprehend and translate complex Ciceronian Latin.
Give four effects which the Vulgate had upon the Latin language.
1) It spread the Latin language 2) It spread a consistency of the Latin language 3) It transformed Latin into a simpler, more vital language. 4) It stressed content over form and that spirit over conceit should prevail.
Describe the "ring structure":
The story starts with a Latin phrase or description of setting, which is then repeated at the end.
What is piety?
devotion to gods
Who was responsible for the first complete Bible in English? When?
John Wycliff in 1380AD
Briefly explain the political turmoil immediately preceding that year and extending to 121 BC:
A land reform bill passed restricting the amount of land one could own. The optimates believed that it si an "incentive for discension." Scipio was murdered dur to opposition. Then Ti. Gracchus was murdered by his cousin Scipio Nasica because he was ruining the state. Gracchus's brother died in 121BC after also being murdered.
Both works deal with _______________
life of a soul after death
Plato initiated the division of philosophical discourse into these three areas: _____which is like the ____ of a tree, _____ which is like the ____ of a tree, and ____ which is like the ______ of a tree
Physics; trunk; logic ; branches; ethics; fruit
What two aspects of the vignette contribute to the tone of the piece?
It was their one and only goose and it was the only protection of their house.
Give the dates of Plato's life.
What caused Cicero to retire from public life and begin writing his essays?
the congregation at Luca reaffirmed the Triumvirate's power
Who is the nephew and adopted son of Aemilia Tertia?
Scipio the Younger
After the re-affirmation of the First Triumvirate, Cicero did not gain political prominence again until ______
after the death of Caesar in 4BC.
Which goddess caused Echo's voice problems?
How do Echo (after "death") and the reflection of Narcissus resemble each other?
Both are reflections of reality; Echo reflects sound, Narcissus' reflection reflects sight. They are elements without substance.
Who is the goddess responsible for Narcissus' dilemma?
What are the three divisions of a philsophy's construct?
logic, physics, ethics
Since Fate rules the world, and we are enslavced to Fate, how may we find some measure of freedom?
We gain some form of freedom by attempting to change our souls, not the heavens.
How did P. Cornelius Scipio receive the agnomen Africanus?
He conquered Hannibal in Africa.
"That which is always in motion is ________, and has no _______ or _______. If it derives its motion or impulse from outside, then when that impulse leaves, the soul is _______."
eternal; beginning; end; dead
What similar course brought about such an outcome?
Both were experiencing unreciprocated love causing unbearable grief.
What Stoic philosopher introduced the idea of a truly virtuous man?
As many philosophers did, Cicero wrote his treatise in the form of a ________
Who is the mother of Nasica?
The year of the setting of the dialogue of the De Re Publica is _____ BC.
What were the final two requests of Baucis and Philemon?
1) That they become priests of the temple 2) That they'd never see the other's death
Write a sentence or two to relate how the story of Echno supports Ovid's notion that each of us is constrained by his nature.
Echo's nature is constrained by Juno's curse. She is bound by the curse and cannot express her love to Narcissus except through echos. Just like Echo, each of us is constrained by our own nature. The course of our lives is generally dictated by circumstances beyond our control.
What is most acceptable to the Deity?
For how long did Augustus rule Rome?
nearly 45 years
According to Cicero, "activity, wisdom, discovery, memory" are divine attributes. Therefore he concludes the _________ is ________
Ovid was exiled by Augustis in the year _______ and was forced to go to a small town in the _________
8AD; Black Sea
What ironic conclucion develops?
Goose flees from the gods but feels to them as well.
Therefore, his logic continues, it is free of earth and moisture and must be __________
Cicero, again, states that that which is moved by another ceases to ______ when the other ceases. That which is ever in motion is ___---_, and thus is the soul given to you, and thus is the soul a part of the ________. The body which is moved from without is _________.
live; eternal; eternal universe; dead
What is a palimpsest?
writing over a parchment
Latin poetry differs from English poetry, for in Latin the syllable is distinguished and marked for its ____________, not its __________
length; stress
The format of the indirect statement often differs by using not the infinitive but by using ______-
quia/quod + indicative
What Stoic philsopher wrote that man is part of the harmony of the universe and should live in harmony with it?
How did the goddess become involved?
Rejected suitors cursed Narcissus and so Nemesis had to take revenge.
Why did Augustus banish his daughter Julia?
She committed adultery
If the philosophy itself were a tree, the runk would be the ________, the fruit would be the _________, and the branches would be the ________.
physics; ethics; logics
In the Vulgate, the dative case is often replaced by _________
a real prepositional phrase (ad + acc.)
The King James Version of the Bible was printed in what year?
Why was Scipio Minor adopted into the family of the Scipiones?
Why, according to Quintillian, did Plato insist that a knowledge of music was necessary for the ideal statesman or politician?
It taught the politicians to make concord out of discordant elements like harmony in music.
When Cicero writes "so much the more execrable are those monsters who have torn their fatherland to pieces with every form of outrage....", whom specifically is he describing?
By what emperor was Seneca ordered to die?
How does our ordinary fire differ from celestial fire?
Give an instance in which Ovid's use of tone affected our feelings for Echo.
We experience sympathy when Echo is rejected by Narcissus despite his calling out for her.
Give the dates for the life of Jerome:
Why does Cicero mention the magnus annus?
to show how insignificant earthly perspectives are in the grand scheme of things.
Seneca's tragedies influenced the tragedies of what period?
Give two reasons why Plato distrusted democracy:
What aspects of their lives or character make these requests quite logical and expected?
Their lives are so devout because they've stayed together for so long.
What Stoic philosopher reorganized the philosophy and made it more "sellable"
Cicero says that as Caesar crossed the Rubicon Pompey left Italy for a despicable reason: not because Rome was impossible to defend, or because he was forced to, but beacuse _______________
Describe the flower ultimately called Narcissus.
beautiful flower with a yellow middle and white outside
Name the three major sections of the Old Testament and the dates between which each was composed (the last date of each is the date of canonization).
A. Torah/Pentateuch 940BC, 400BC; B. Prophets 800BC, 200BC; Hagiographa 700BC, 90-100AD
How did the gods respond to the inhospitality of the neighbors of Baucis and Philemon?
The gods killed the neighbors with a flood.
"The soul of every man, not the _____, is the _______."
body; man
Who is a Stoic Roman emperor?
Marcus Aurelius
List five of the ten similarities between Stoicism and Christianity:
1) God is the head of the universe 2) A perfect man 3) Afterlife 4) God is a benevolent god 5) They both appeal to lower classes
Why should pain and/or death not concern us?
What were the two restrictions on Echno's use of her voice?
She could only say the last words of many and she'd repeat them.
What Stoic philosopher lived 120-180AD?
Marcus Aurelius
Why are we not surprised at this timing?
Rome was spreading throughout the Mediterranean area at this time and bringing back all things Hellenistic.
What controversy prompted the discussion of government in Cicero's work?
What is Aristotle's major point in arguing against the idea that the celestial bodies in their movement produce music of incredible volume?
Such massive sounds would have shattered inanimate masses
The republic had its power vested chiefly in a ___________, but also in the _____________
Senate; popular assemblies and elected magistrates
What prompted Cicero to return to active involvement in politics?
Caesar's death
What does the re-filling of the wine bowl represent?
Tthose who give much shall recieve much
What is the true import of Seneca's metaphor of the vine?
What had Narcissus done to justify what the goddess did to him?
Narrcissus' arrogance while rejecting Echo and other nymphs justified the punishment.
When and by whom did the first printed English Bible appear?
1526AD by William Tyndale.
Cicero says that both Pompey and Caesar want to be ____
What are the three typical forms of government, as mentioned in the De Re Publica?
aristocracy, monarchy, democracy
Explain the derivation of the word Stoicism.
The Stoa Poikile is the place where Zeno preached the idea of stoicism. Stoicism dervies from Stoa Poikile meaning "painted porch."
Plato said that the objects of our senses lack genuine existence because ______
they're in perpetual motion

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