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William Henry Harrison/ Log cabin campaign
renown soldier and a popular national figure, was nominated in the convention held by the Whig party, for the election of 1840, he was portrayed as a product of a log cabin who enjoyed drinking hard cider from a jug.
Trail of Tears
Most Cherokees made a long forced trek to Indian territory or, later Oklahoma, beginning in the winter 1838, more than a quarter died before they reached their unwanted destination.
Nicolas Biddle
ran the second national bank from 1823 and on, and at this time, the Bank held all federal gold and silver deposits and thus had significant control over credit and monetary policy.
Five Civilized Tribes
some of the strong, remaining tribes of the south, consisted of; Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw.
Thomas Dorr/ Dorr's Rebellion
during the time of reformation in Rhode Island, this lawyer and activist and a group of his followers formed a "People's Party", held a convention, drafted a new constitution and submitted it to a popular vote, which approved it. They began to set up a new state government which was in competition with the old state legislature, who began to imprison Dorrites. Dorr and his followers tried to capture the state arsenal, which failed, but showed the need for a new constitution which expanded suffrage.
Nullification Crisis
when the congressional tariff bill offered South Carolina no relief from the "tariff of abominations", they used their state legislature (governor= Hayne, Senator= Calhoun) to try and nullify the tariffs of 1828 and 1832, but Jackson considered this an act of Treason.
DeWit Clinton
aristocratic governor of NY, was challenged by the Bucktails, and was able to create a closed elite, but this competition made him more sensitive to the will of the people, similar to the federal system of checks and balances.
The Blackhawk War
In Illinois, the Sauk and Fox Indians under Black Hawk fought white settlers in 1831- 1832 in an effort to overturn they considered an illegal treaty ceding tribal lands in that state to the United States. This war was notable for the viciousness of the white military efforts; whites would attack Indians that surrendered, pursue them when they retreated, and slaughtered most.
their philosophy war the stamp of Andrew Jackson, believing the federal government should be limited in power, except to a degree that it worked to eliminate social and economic arrangements that entrenched privilege and stifled equal opportunity.
Henry Clay as Candidate
running as a Whig candidate, Clay won the support from many who favored his American System (western states), but his image as a devious political operator and his identification with the West was a liability.
Treaty of Wang Hya
establishing the first U.S. diplomatic relations with China, this secured Americans the same trading privileges as the English , and in the next ten years, American trade with China steadily increased.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
In 1785, the Massachusetts legislature incorporated the Charles River Bridge Company to construct a bridge and collect tolls. In 1828, the legislature established the Warren Bridge Company to build a free bridge nearby. Unsurprisingly, the new bridge deprived the old one of traffic and tolls. The Charles River Bridge Company filed suit, claiming the legislature had defaulted on its initial contract.
John Tyler
when the president Harrison died of pneumonia one month after taking office, and this Vice President of Virginia succeeded him (democrat, whig but didn't follow whig ideas)
The Bank War
the name given to Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States during the early years of his presidency. Andrew Jackson viewed the Bank of the United States as a monopoly. The Bank of the United States was a private institution managed by a board of directors. Its president, Nicholas Biddle, exercised vast influence in the nation's financial affairs.
King Andrew I
as a new political party was created in opposition to the president, they began referring to Andrew Jackson with this name, representing his "abusive" use of political power.
Roger B. Taney
the attorney general and a close friend and loyal ally of the president, was the third person that Jackson named as secretary of the treasury, eventually replaced John Marshall as the new chief justice. (had a southern view)
the new political party in opposition to Andrew Jackson, named themselves after the party in England that traditionally worked to limit the power of the king, creating a new second party system
Kitchen Cabinet
was President Jackson's unofficial circle of political allies, of which Van Buren was a member.
Daniel Webster as Candidate
also running as a Whig candidate, he won a broad support among those who appreciated his passionate speeches in defense of the Constitution and the Union, but his close connection with the national bank, and the protective tariff, prevented him from achieving national popularity.
Independent Treasury
the most controversial measure, that was part of the Van Buren proposal for a new financial system, was his subtreasury system, where government funds would be placed in an independent treasury in Washington and in sub treasuries in other cities.
William L. Marcy/ Patronage/ The spoil system
one of Jackson's allies he argued that spoils belonged to victors, and encouraged Jackson's use of patronage or the process of giving out jobs as political rewards.(rotation in office)
Jacksonian Democracy
this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Part, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
soft money faction
state bankers and their allies objected to the Bank of the United States because it restrained the state banks from issuing notes freely.
Specie Circular
when Jackson feared that the government was selling land for state bank notes of questionable value, he issued this order, which provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver coins or currency backed by gold or silver.
Winifield Scott
was sent by Jackson with an army of 7,000 to round up any Cherokee Indians and drive them westward from their, wrongly taken, tribal lands.
Anti- Masonry
developed in New York, had emerged in the 1820's in response to widespread resentment against the secret and exclusive, hence supposedly undemocratic, Society of Freemasons. Whigs used their ideas to attack Jackson and Van Buren, both Freemasons, by implying that they were connected with the antidemocratic conspiracy.
hard money faction
supporters believed that coins were the only safe currency, and they condemned all banks that issued bank notes, including the national bank.
Andrew Jackson
inaugurated during the time known as the era of the common man, he won the election of 1828,due to the changes in voting requirements of the south (not only property owners), which increased the number of voters in favor of Jackson.
Daniel Webster
now a senator from Massachusetts, opposed Hayne and Calhoun, as he considered their challenge to the integrity of the Union, challenging Hayne to a debate over the issue of states' rights versus national power.
Calhoun/ nullification doctrine
theory advanced by Calhoun which argued that since the federal government was a creation of the states, the states, not the courts or Congress, were the final arbiters of the constitutionality of federal laws, and Calhoun clearly shared this belief because he feared that the growth of industrial capitalism in American would lead to a class struggle.
Robert Y. Hayne
a young senator from South Carolina believed that by slowing down the growth of the West, the East could retain its political and economic power, hoping that his position would attract supporters from the West and South.
Martin Van Buren/ Buckettail/ Albany Regency
Buren led a dissident political faction (Bucktails / Albany Regency) in New York, believed that only a party based in the populace could insure democracy.
Peggy Eaton
was previously called Peggy O'Neal, and it was rumored that while married she had an affair with John Eaton, Jackson's friend and member of his cabinet. When O'Neal's husband died, she soon married Eaton, but the other wives of Jackson's cabinet members (especially Mrs. Calhoun) refused to accept her into their social circle. Jackson was angered at Calhoun and chose Van Buren to succeed him instead, ending Calhoun's dreams of presidency.
Maysville Road
was a bill that proposed building a road within Kentucky with federal capital. Jackson vetoed this, because he considered it unconstitutional, as it was only in Kentucky and not a part of interstate commerce. He also was against the bill because it was considered extravagant expenditures.
The Caroline & the Creole
when anti- British factions in Canada launched an unsuccessful rebellion, some of the rebels took refuge near the United States border and chartered an American steamship; British authorities burned the ship, killing one American in the process. Also, and American ship with 100 slaves aboard sailed to the Bahamas, were the slaves caused a mutiny and England declared the slaves free, another action which greatly angered the Americans.
Force bill
used by Jackson, this authorized the president to use the military to see that acts of Congress were obeyed ( in reaction to tarriff controversy)
Webster- Ashburton Treaty
when the new government was eager to reduce tensions between the U.S. and Great Britain negotiated this agreement on the Maine boundaries. This treaty gave the United States slightly more than half the disputed area and agreed to a revised northern boundary as far west as the Rocky Mountains.
Penny Press/ The New York Sun
the first new and popular press, a useful product of the 1840 campaign, carried news of the candidates to large audiences, newspapers of this press were deliberately livelier and even more sensationalistic than those of the past, they enforced the democratic character of political culture and encouraging the inclination of both parties to try to appeal to ordinary voters.
Osceola/ Seminoles
The Seminoles tried to resist the pressures, but eventually ended up ceding their lands to the United States and agreed to move to the Indian territory, which most of them did. But those that remained joined up forces with Chieftain Osceola and runaway black slaves and staged an uprising in 1835 to defend their lands. Jackson sent troops to Florida, But the Seminoles were masters of Guerilla warfare, and the U.S. government abandoned the war, but by then many had been either killed or forced westward.
Cherokee nation v. Georgia/ Worchester v. Georgia/ Jackson Position
when Georgia first attempted to take land away from the Cherokee, Marshall sided with the Native American's, saying that states had no right to take land away from sovereign Indian nations, but Jackson opposed this decision. In 1835, the Cherokees ceded much of their land to Georgia for 5 million dollars, but the Cherokees did not recognize the treaty as legitimate, but Jackson sent them westward anyway.
Jefferson Birthday Dinner
Hayne and Webster both waited to hear what President Jackson thought of the argument and at Jefferson's annual Democratic Party banquet finally got their answer as the President gave a toast (while looking at Calhoun), saying "Our Federal Union- It must be preserved. The Union, next to our liberty most dear". (increased controversy)
Webster Hayne Debate
Hayne first responded to Daniel Webster's argument of states' rights versus national power, with the idea of nullification. Webster then spent 2 full afternoons delivering his response which he concluded by saying that "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable"
Aroostook War
The result of the conflict over The Caroline ship, which consisted of angry Americans and Canadians, mostly lumberjacks, began moving into the disputed Aroostook River region, causing a violent brawl.

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